Lamps and Lighting Systems

  • David Sliney
  • Myron Wolbarsht


It may seem strange that the subject of lamp safety has been relegated to nearly the end of this book. After all, lamps and lighting systems have been around far longer than the laser. On the other hand, despite the short history of the laser, safety standards for the use of lasers and for the manufacture of lasers were developed within 10–15 years after the invention of such devices. This was not really true in the case of the electric lamp. Indeed, at the time of publication of this book, there were essentially no standards devoted to lamp safety. There are several reasons for this. First of all, lamps were developed and produced in large quantities and became commonplace in an era when product standards and, certainly, safety standards were rare if not totally unknown. Furthermore, there was no public fear of hazards from lamps such as was associated with the development of laser devices. Finally, the evaluation and control of lamp hazards is a far more complicated subject than similar tasks for a single-wavelength laser system. The required radiometric measurements are quite involved, for they do not deal with the simple optics of a point source, but rather with an extended source which may or may not be altered by a projection system that is almost always involved. Also, the wavelength distribution of the lamp may be altered by ancillary optical elements, diffusers, lenses, and the like.


Fluorescent Lamp Lighting System Spectral Radiance Incandescent Lamp Spectral Irradiance 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Sliney
    • 1
  • Myron Wolbarsht
    • 2
  1. 1.U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene AgencyAberdeen Proving GroundUSA
  2. 2.Duke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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