Cocaine, Benzoylecgonine and Ecgonine Methyl Ester Determinations in Post Mortem Human Urine and Blood by Gas Chromatography and Capillary Gas Chromatography after “Extrelut®” Extraction

  • R. Froldi
  • V. Gambaro
  • A. Groppi

Abstract

Blood and urine level determinations of cacaine and its metabolites are important for the correct toxicological evaluation of “death due to cocaine”. In fact the significance of the biological fluid concentration in fatal cases can be assessed from human clinical studies1–3. On the other hand the urine and blood concentrations provide toxicological data that may assist forensic toxicologist and pathologist in the interpretation of the time and also the manner of death. The concentration of cocaine and its metabolites in body tissues is less important for the death investigation from the medico legal point of view4–9.

Keywords

Toxicity Ethyl Transportation Chloroform Acetonitrile 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J.E. Wallace, H.E. Hamilton, D.E. King, D.J. Bason, H.A. Schwertner and S.C. Harris, Gas liquid chromatographic determination of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in urine, Anal. Chem. 48: 34 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H.E. Hamilton, J.E. Wallace, E.L. Shimek, P. Land, S.C. Harris and J.G. Christenson, Cocaine and benzoylecgonine excretion in humans, J. Forens. Sci. 22: 697 (1977).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.J. Kogan, K.G. Verebey, A.C. De Pace, R.B. Resnik and S.J. Mùle, Quantitative determination of benzoylecgonine and cocaine in human biofluids by gas liquid chromatography, Anal. Chem. 49: 1965 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    B.S. Finkle and K.L. McCloskey, The forensic toxicology of cocaine (1971–1976), J. Forens. Sci. 23: 173 (1978).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.C. Valentour, V. Aggarwal, M.P. McGee and S.W. Goza, Cocaine and benzoylecgonine determinations in postmortem samples by gas chromatography, J. Anal. Toxicol. 2: 134 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H.H. McCurdy, Quantitation of cocaine and benzoylecgonine after Jetube extraction and derivatization, J. Anal. Toxicol. 4: 82 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.E. Lindgren, Guide to the analysis of cocaine and its metabolites in biological material, J. Ethnoph. 3: 337 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C.V. Wetli and R.E. Mittleman, The “body packer syndrome”. Toxicity following ingestion of illicit drugs packaged for transportation, J. Forens. Sci. 26: 492 (1981).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R.E. Mittleman and C.V. Wetli, Death caused by recreational cocaine use, JAMA 252: 1889 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.J. Ambre, T. Ruo, G.R. Smith, D. Backes and C.M. Smit, Ecgonine methyl ester, a major metabolite of cocaine, J. Anal. Toxicol. 6: 26 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.J. Ambre, M. Fischman and T. Ruo, Urinary excretion of ecgonine methyl ester, a major metabolite of cocaine in humans, J. Anal. Toxicol. 8: 23 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Matsubara, M. Kagawa and Y. Fukui, In vivo and in vitro studies on cocaine metabolism: ecgonine methyl ester as a major metabolite of cocaine, Forens. Sci. Int. 26: 169 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Froldi
    • 1
  • V. Gambaro
    • 2
  • A. Groppi
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Forensic MedicineUniversity of MacerataMacerataItaly
  2. 2.University of MilanMilanItaly
  3. 3.University of PaviaPaviaItaly

Personalised recommendations