Behavior Genetics of Flexible Life Histories in Milkweed Bugs (Oncopeltus fasciatus)
Insects often face uncertain or unpredictable environments and must make appropriate adjustments in their life histories. Adaptations to predictable environments are well-known, and there is an extensive literature on the use of photoperiod, the most reliable seasonal cue, to time diapause, migration, reproduction and related responses. The difficulty comes when photoperiod (or any other cue) is unreliable. Under such conditions, the best strategy for an organism is to remain flexible, and the most obvious way to do so is via behavior, in particular those behaviors such as migration and diapause that allow choices of where and when to breed. Behavior can thus be an important element of a life history “strategy” (Dingle 1982, 1984).
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Dingle, H. 1981. Geographical variation and behavioral flexibility in milkweed bug life histories. In R. F. Denno and H. Dingle, eds. Insect Life History Patterns: Habitat and Geographical Variation. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
- Dingle, H. 1984. Behavior, genes, and life histories: Complex adaptations in uncertain environments. In P. W. Price, C. N. Slobodchikoff, and W. S. Gaud, eds. New Ecology: Novel Approaches to Interactive Systems. Wiley, New York (in press).Google Scholar
- Dingle, H., B. M. Alden, N. R. Blakley, D. Kopec, and E. R. Miller. 1980a. Variation in photoperiodic response within and among species of milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus). Evolution 34: 356.Google Scholar
- Dingle, H., W. S. Blau, C. K. Brown, and J. P. Hegmann. 1982. Population crosses and the genetic structure of milkweed bug life histories. In H. Dingle and J. P. Hegmann, eds. Evolution and Genetics of Life Histories. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
- Endler, J. A. 1977. Geographic Variation, Speciation, and Clines. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
- Evans, K. E. 1982. The annual pattern of migration and reproduction in field populations of the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus in California. Ph.D. Thesis. University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
- Falconer, D. S. 1977. Some results of the Edinburgh selection experiments with mice. In E. Pollack, O. Kempthorne, and T. O. Bailey, eds. Proceedings of an International Conference in Genetics. Iowa State University Press, Ames.Google Scholar
- Falconer, D. S. 1981. Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. 2nd ed. Longman, London and New York.Google Scholar
- Hegmann, J. P., and H. Dingle 1982. Phenotypic and genetic covariance structure in milkweed bug life history traits. In H. Dingle and J. P. Hegmann, eds. Evolution and Genetics of Life Histories. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar