Advertisement

Vitamin A and the provitamin A carotenoids

  • G. F. M. Ball

Abstract

In 1915 McCollum and Davis isolated from animal fats and fish oils a ‘fat-soluble A’ that was essential to rats for growth and also cured eye disorders. In 1921 Bloch reported that a diet containing full milk and cod-liver oil cured xerophthalmia in infants and concluded that the eye affliction was due to the absence of the fat-soluble A in the diet. In the meantime it was discovered that green vegetables also possess fat-soluble A activity and in 1930 Moore provided evidence that carotene was converted to vitamin A in the body. The biochemical function of vitamin A in vision was established by Wald in 1935.

Keywords

Green Leafy Vegetable Retinyl Palmitate Retinyl Ester Retinyl Acetate High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aitzetmüller, K., Pilz, J. and Tasche, R. (1979) Fast determination of vitamin A palmitate in margarines by HPLC. Fette Seifen Anstrichmittel, 81, 40–3.Google Scholar
  2. Ames, S.R. (1966) Methods for evaluating vitamin A isomers. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 49, 1071–8.Google Scholar
  3. Bendich, A. and Langseth, L. (1989) Safety of vitamin A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 49, 358–71.Google Scholar
  4. Bieri, J.G. and McKenna, M.C. (1981) Expressing dietary values for fat-soluble vitamins: changes in concepts and terminology. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 34, 289–95.Google Scholar
  5. Bliss, C.I. and Roels, O.A. (1967) Bioassay of vitamin A potency. In The Vitamins. Chemistry, Physiology, Pathology, Methods, 2nd edn, Vol. VI (eds P. György and W.N. Pearson), Academic Press, New York, pp. 197–210.Google Scholar
  6. Blomhoff, R., Green, M.H., Green, J.B. et al. (1991) Vitamin A metabolism: new perspectives on absorption, transport, and storage. Physiol. Rev., 71, 951–90.Google Scholar
  7. Boldingh, J., Cama, H.R., Collins, F.D. et al. (1951) Pure all-trans vitamin A acetate and the assessment of vitamin A potency by spectrophotometry. Nature, 168, 598.Google Scholar
  8. Brinkmann, E., Dehne, L., Oei, H.B. et al. (1995) Separation of geometrical retinol isomers in food samples by using narrow-bore high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromat. A, 693, 271–9.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, E.D., Micozzi, M.S., Craft, N.E. et al. (1989) Plasma carotenoids in normal men after a single ingestion of vegetables or purified ß-carotene. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 49, 1258–65.Google Scholar
  10. Brubacher, G.B. and Weiser, H. (1985) The vitamin A activity of 0-carotene. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 55, 5–15.Google Scholar
  11. Brubacher, G., Müller-Mulot, W. and Southgate, D.A.T. (1985) Methods for the Determination of Vitamins in Foods. Recommended by COST 91, Elsevier Applied Science, London.Google Scholar
  12. Bulux, J., Carranza, E., Castaneda, C. et al. (1992) Studies on the application of the relative-dose-response test for assessing vitamin A status in older adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 56, 543–7.Google Scholar
  13. Bureau, J.L. and Bushway, R.J. (1986) HPLC determination of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables in the United States. J. Food Sci., 51, 128–30.Google Scholar
  14. Bushway, R.J. (1985) Separation of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography. J. Liquid Chromat., 8, 1527–47.Google Scholar
  15. Bushway, R.J. (1986) Determination of a- and f3-carotene in some raw fruits and vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem., 34, 409–12.Google Scholar
  16. Cain, R.F. (1975) Factors influencing the nutritional quality and fortification of fruits and vegetables. In Technology of Fortification of Foods,Food and Nutrition Board, NRC, Nat. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  17. Chandler, L.A. and Schwartz, S.J. (1987) HPLC separation of cis—trans carotene isomers in fresh and processed fruits and vegetables. J. Food Sci., 52, 669–72.Google Scholar
  18. Chen, T.M. and Chen, B.H. (1994) Optimization of mobile phases for HPLC of cistrans carotene isomers. Chromatographia, 39, 346–54.Google Scholar
  19. Chen, B.H., Chuang, J.R., Lin, J.H. and Chiu, C.P. (1993) Quantification of provitamin A compounds in Chinese vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Food Protection, 56, 51–4.Google Scholar
  20. Coulter, S.T. and Thomas, E.L. (1968) Enrichment and fortification of dairy products and margarine. J. Agric. Food Chem., 16, 158–62.Google Scholar
  21. de Man, J.M. (1981) Light-induced destruction of vitamin A in milk. J. Dairy Sci., 64, 2031–2.Google Scholar
  22. Dimitrov, N.V., Meyer, C., Ullrey, D.E. et al. (1988) Bioavailability of (3-carotene in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 48, 298–304.Google Scholar
  23. Egberg, D.C., Heroff, J.C. and Potter, R.H. (1977) Determination of all-trans and 13-cis vitamin A in food products by high-pressure liquid chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem., 25, 1127–32.Google Scholar
  24. Erdman, J.W. Jr, Bierer, T.L. and Gugger, E.T. (1993) Absorption and transport of carotenoids. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 691, 76–85.Google Scholar
  25. Erdman, J.W. Jr, Fahey, G.C. Jr and White, C.B. (1986) Effects of purified dietary fiber sources on 13-carotene utilization by the chick. J. Nutr., 116, 2415–23.Google Scholar
  26. Erdman, J.W. Jr, Poor, C.L. and Dietz, J.M. (1988) Factors affecting the bioavailability of vitamin A, carotenoids, and vitamin E. Food Technol., 41(10) 214–16, 219, 221.Google Scholar
  27. FAO/WHO (1967) Requirements of vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavine and niacin, WHO Technical Report Series No. 362, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  28. FAO/WHO (1988) Requirements of vitamin A, iron, folate and vitamin B12. FAO Food and Nutrition Series No. 23, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  29. Fiksdahl, A., Mortensen, J.T. and Liaaen-Jensen, S. (1978) High-pressure liquid chromatography of carotenoids. J. Chromat., 157, 111–7.Google Scholar
  30. Food Labelling Regulations (1984) Statutory Instrument 1984, No. 1305, as amended, H.M. Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  31. Ford, J.E., Porter, J.W.G., Thompson, S.Y. et al. (1969) Effects of ultra-high temperature (UHT) processing and of subsequent storage on the vitamin content of milk. J. Dairy Res., 36, 447–54.Google Scholar
  32. Ganguly, J. and Sastry, P.S. (1985) Mechanism of conversion of 0-carotene into vitamin A — central cleavage versus random cleavage. Wld Rev. Nutr. Diet., 45, 198–220.Google Scholar
  33. Glover, J. (1960) The conversion of (3-carotene into vitamin A. Vitam. Horm., 38, 371–86.Google Scholar
  34. Goodman, De W.S. and Blaner, W.S. (1984) Biosynthesis, absorption, and hepatic metabolism of retinol. In The Retinoids, Vol. 2 (eds M.S. Sporn, A.B. Roberts and De W.S. Goodman), Academic Press, Inc., New York, pp. 1–39.Google Scholar
  35. Goodwin, T.W. and Britton, G. (1988) Distribution and analysis of carotenoids. In Plant Pigments (ed. T.W. Goodwin), Academic Press, London, pp. 61–132.Google Scholar
  36. Granado, F., Olmedilla, B., Blanco, I. and Rojas-Hidalgo, E. (1991) An improved HPLC method for the separation of fourteen carotenoids, including 15-/13- and 9-cis-0-carotene isomers, phytoene and phytofluene. J. Liquid Chromat., 14, 2457–75.Google Scholar
  37. Granado, F., Olmedilla, B., Blanco, I. and Rojas-Hidalgo, E. (1992) Carotenoid composition in raw and cooked Spanish vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40, 2135–40.Google Scholar
  38. Green, J. (1970) Distribution of fat-soluble vitamins and their standardization and assay by biological methods. In Fat-soluble Vitamins (ed. R.A. Morton), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 71–97Google Scholar
  39. Harris, R.S. (1967) Vitamin A and carotene. 1. Nomenclature and formulas. In The Vitamins. Chemistry, Physiology, Pathology, Methods, 2nd edn, Vol. I (eds W.H. Sebrell, Jr and R.S. Harris), Academic Press, New York, pp. 3–5.Google Scholar
  40. Hart, D.J. and Scott, K.J. (1995) Development and evaluation of an HPLC method for the analysis of carotenoids in foods, and the measurement of the carotenoid content of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in the UK. Food Chem., 54, 101–111.Google Scholar
  41. Heinonen, M.I., Ollilainen, V., Linkola, E.K. et al. (1989) Carotenoids in Finnish foods: vegetables, fruits and berries. J. Agric. Food Chem., 37, 655–9.Google Scholar
  42. Holland, B., Unwin, I.D. and Buss, D.H. (1991) Fifth supplement to McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods: Vegetables, Herbs and Spices, Royal Society of Chemistry, H.M. Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  43. Hollander, D. and Muralidhara, K.S. (1977) Vitamin Al intestinal absorption in vivo: influence of luminal factors on transport. Am. J. Physiol., 232, E471–7.Google Scholar
  44. Hollander, D. and Ruble, P.E. Jr (1978) 13-Carotene intestinal absorption: bile, fatty acid, pH, and flow rate effects on transport. Am. J. Physiol., 235, E686–91.Google Scholar
  45. Jayarajan, P., Reddy, V. and Mohanram, M. (1980) Effect of dietary fat on absorption of (3-carotene from green leafy vegetables in children. Indian J. Med. Res., 71, 53–6.Google Scholar
  46. Jensen, S.K. (1994) Retinol determination in milk by HPLC and fluorescence detection. J. Dairy Res., 61, 233–40.Google Scholar
  47. Kakkad, B.P. and Ong, D.E. (1988) Reduction of retinaldehyde bound to cellular retinol-binding protein (type II) by microsomes from rat small intestine. J. Biol. Chem., 263, 12916–9.Google Scholar
  48. Khachik, F. and Beecher, G.R. (1987) Application of a C-45–13-carotene as an internal standard for the quantification of carotenoids in yellow/orange vegetables by liquid chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem., 35, 732–8.Google Scholar
  49. Khachik, F. and Beecher, G.R. (1988) Separation and identification of carotenoids and carotenol fatty acid esters in some squash products by liquid chromatography. I. Quantification of carotenoids and related esters by HPLC. J. Agric. Food Chem., 36, 929–37.Google Scholar
  50. Khachik, F., Beecher, G.R. and Lusby, W.R. (1989) Separation, identification, and quantification of the major carotenoids in extracts of apricots, peaches, cantaloupe, and pink grapefruit by liquid chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem., 37, 1465–73.Google Scholar
  51. Khachik, F., Beecher, G.R. and Whittaker, N.F. (1986) Separation, identification, and quantification of the major carotenoid and chlorophyll constituents in extracts of several green vegetables by liquid chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem., 34, 603–16.Google Scholar
  52. Khachik, F., Beecher, G.R., Goli, M.B. and Lusby, W.R. (1991) Separation, identification, and quantification of carotenoids in fruits, vegetables and human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography. Pure Appl. Chem., 63, 71–80.Google Scholar
  53. Khokhar, S. and Kapoor, A.C. (1990) Effect of dietary fibres on bioavailability of vitamin A and thiamine. Plant Foods Human Nutr., 40, 259–65.Google Scholar
  54. Kimura, M., Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B. and Godoy, H.T. (1990) Assessment of the saponification step in the quantitative determination of carotenoids and provitamine A. Food Chem., 35, 187–95.Google Scholar
  55. Kläui, H.M., Hausheer, W. and Huschke, G. (1970) Technological aspects of the use of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids and of the development of stabilized marketable forms. In Fat-soluble Vitamins (ed. R.A. Morton), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 113–59.Google Scholar
  56. Krasinski, S.D., Cohn, J.S., Schaefer, E.J. and Russell, R.M. (1990) Postprandial plasma retinyl ester response is greater in older subjects compared with younger subjects. J. Clin. Invest., 85, 883–92.Google Scholar
  57. Landen, W.O. Jr (1980) Application of gel permeation chromatography and non-aqueous reverse phase chromatography to high pressure liquid chromatographic determination of retinyl palmitate in fortified breakfast cereals. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 63, 131–6.Google Scholar
  58. Landen, W.O. Jr and Eitenmiller, R.R. (1979) Application of gel permeation chromatography and nonaqueous reverse phase chromatography to high pressure liquid chromatographic determination of retinyl palmitate and (3-carotene in oil and margarine. J. Ass. Off Analyt. Chem., 62, 283–9.Google Scholar
  59. Landers, G.M. and Olson, J.A. (1986) Absence of isomerization of retinyl palmitate, retinol, and retinal in chlorinated and nonchlorinated solvents under gold light. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem. 69, 50–5.Google Scholar
  60. Lawn, R.E., Harris, J.R. and Johnson, S.F. (1983) Some aspects of the use of high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of vitamin A in animal feeding stuffs. J. Sci. Food Agric., 34, 1039–46.Google Scholar
  61. Lee, C.Y., McCoon, P.E. and LeBowitz, J.M. (1981) Vitamin A value of sweet corn. J. Agric. Food Chem., 29, 1294–5.Google Scholar
  62. Le Maguer, I. and Jackson, H. (1983) Stability of vitamin A in pasteurized and ultra-high temperature processed milks. J. Dairy Sci., 66, 2452–8.Google Scholar
  63. Lesellier, E., Marty, C., Berset, C. and Tchapla, A. (1989) Optimization of the isocratic non-aqueous reverse phase (NARP) HPLC separation of trans/cis wand 0-carotenes. J. High Resolution Chromat., 12, 447–54.Google Scholar
  64. MacCrehan, W.A. (1990) Determination of retinol, a-tocopherol, and 0-carotene in serum by liquid chromatography. Methods Enzymol., 189, 172–81.Google Scholar
  65. Marsili, R. and Callahan, D. (1993) Comparison of a liquid solvent extraction technique and supercritical fluid extraction for the determination of a-and 13-carotene in vegetables. J. Chromatogr. Sci., 31, 422–8.Google Scholar
  66. Mayne, S.T. (1996) Beta-carotene, carotenoids, and disease prevention in humans. FASEB, J., 10, 690–701.Google Scholar
  67. Micozzi, M.S., Brown, E.D., Edwards, B.K. et al. (1992) Plasma carotenoid response to chronic intake of selected foods and 0-carotene supplements in men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 55, 1120–5.Google Scholar
  68. Miller, D.R. and Hayes, K.C. (1982) Vitamin excess and toxicity. In Nutritional Toxicology, Vol. I (ed. J.N. Hathcock), Academic Press, New York, pp. 81–133.Google Scholar
  69. Minguez-Mosquera, M.I. and Homero-Méndez, D. (1993) Separation and quantification of the carotenoid pigments in red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), paprika, and oleoresin by reversed-phase HPLC. J. Agric. Food Chem., 41, 1616–20.Google Scholar
  70. National Research Council (1989) Fat-soluble vitamins. In Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th edn, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp. 78–114.Google Scholar
  71. Nierenberg, D.W. and Lester, D.C. (1986) High pressure liquid chromatographic assays for retinol and beta-carotene: potential problems and solutions. J. Nutr. Growth Cancer, 3, 215–25.Google Scholar
  72. Nierenberg, D.W., Peng, Y.-M. and Alberts, D.S. (1988) Methods for determination of retinoids, a-tocopherols, and carotenoids in human serum, plasma, and other tissues. In Nutrition and Cancer Prevention. Investigating the Role of Micronutrients (eds T.E. Moon and M.S. Micozzi), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 181–209.Google Scholar
  73. Nyambaka, H. and Ryley, J. (1996) An isocratic reversed-phase HPLC separation of the steroisomers of the provitamin A carotenoids (a-and (3-carotene) in dark green vegetables. Food Chem., 55, 63–72.Google Scholar
  74. Ogunlesi, A.T. and Lee, C.Y. (1979) Effects of thermal processing on the stereoisomerization of major carotenoids and vitamin A value of carrots. Food Chem., 4, 311–18.Google Scholar
  75. O’Leary, M.J. (1993) Industrial production. In The Technology of Vitamins in Food (ed. P. Berry Ottaway), Mackie Academic & Professional, Glasgow, pp. 63–89.Google Scholar
  76. Ollilainen, V., Heinonen, M., Linkola, E. et al. (1988) Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: meat and meat products. J. Food Comp. Anal., 1, 178–88.Google Scholar
  77. Ollilainen, V., Heinonen, M., Linkola, E. et al. (1989a) Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: dairy products and eggs. J. Dairy Sci., 72, 2257–65.Google Scholar
  78. Ollilainen, V., Heinonen, M., Linkola, E. et al. (1989b) Retinoids and carotenoids in Finnish foods: fish and fish products. J. Food Comp. Anal., 2, 93–103.Google Scholar
  79. Olson, J.A. (1986) Physiological and metabolic basis of major signs of vitamin A deficiency. In Vitamin A Deficiency and its Control (ed. J.C. Bauernfeind), Academic Press, Inc., New York, pp. 19–57.Google Scholar
  80. Olson, J.A. (1988) Vitamin A, retinoids, and carotenoids. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 7th edn (eds M.E. Shils and V.R. Young), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp. 292–312.Google Scholar
  81. Olson, J.A. (1989) Provitamin A function of carotenoids: the conversion of [3- carotene into vitamin A. J. Nutr., 119, 105–8.Google Scholar
  82. Olson, J.A. (1991) Vitamin A. In Handbook of Vitamins, 2nd edn (ed. L.J. Machlin), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 1–57.Google Scholar
  83. Olson, J.A. (1994) Vitamin A, retinoids, and carotenoids. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th edn, Vol. 1 (eds M.E. Shils, J.A. Olson and M. Shike), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp. 287–307.Google Scholar
  84. Omaye, S.T. (1984) Safety of megavitamin therapy. In Nutritional and Toxicological Aspects of Food Safety (ed. M. Friedman), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 169–203.Google Scholar
  85. O’Neil, C.A. and Schwartz, S.J. (1992) Chromatographic analysis of cis/trans carotenoid isomers. J. Chromat., 624, 235–52.Google Scholar
  86. O’Neil, C.A., Schwartz, S.J. and Catignani, G.L. (1991) Comparison of liquid chromatographic methods for determination of cis-trans isomers of 13-carotene. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 74, 36–42.Google Scholar
  87. Ong, D.E., Kakkad, B. and MacDonald, P.N. (1987) Acyl-CoA-independent esterification of retinol bound to cellular retinol-binding protein (type II) by microsomes from rat intestine. J. Biol. Chem., 262, 2729–36.Google Scholar
  88. Parrish, D.B. (1977) Determination of vitamin A in foods — a review. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 9, 375–94.Google Scholar
  89. Passmore, R. and Eastwood, M.A. (1986) Davidson and Passmore Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 8th edn, Churchill Livingstone, New York.Google Scholar
  90. Pesek, C.A., Warthesen, J.J. and Taoukis, P.S. (1990) A kinetic model for equilibration of isomeric I3-carotenes. J. Agric. Food Chem., 38, 41–5.Google Scholar
  91. Philip, T. and Chen, T.-S. (1988) Development of a method for the quantitative estimation of provitamin A carotenoids in some fruits. J. Food Sci., 53, 17031706.Google Scholar
  92. Pitt, G.A.J. (1985) Vitamin A. In Fat-Soluble Vitamins. Their Biochemistry and Applications (ed. A.T. Diplock), Heinemann, London, pp. 1–75.Google Scholar
  93. Quackenbush, F.W. (1987) Reverse phase HPLC separation of cis-and transcarotenoids and its application to f3-carotenes in food materials. J. Liquid Chromat., 10, 643–53.Google Scholar
  94. Quackenbush, F.W. and Smallidge, R.L. (1986) Nonaqueous reverse phase liquid chromatographic system for separation and quantitation of provitamins A. J. Ass. Off Analyt. Chem., 69, 767–72.Google Scholar
  95. Rock, C.L. and Swendseid, M.E. (1992) Plasma [3-carotene response in humans after meals supplemented with dietary pectin. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 55, 96–9.Google Scholar
  96. Rodriguez, M.S. and Irwin, M.I. (1972) A conspectus of research on vitamin A requirement of man. J. Nutr., 102, 909–68.Google Scholar
  97. Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B. (1989) Critical review of provitamin A determination in plant foods. J. Micronutr. Anal., 5, 191–225.Google Scholar
  98. Roels, O.A., Trout, M. and Dujacquier, R. (1958) Carotene balances on boys in Ruanda where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. J. Nutr., 65, 115–27.Google Scholar
  99. Ross, A.C. (1993) Overview of retinoid metabolism. J. Nutr., 123, 346–50.Google Scholar
  100. Rüedi, P. (1985) HPLC — a powerful tool in carotenoid research. Pure Appl. Chem., 57, 793–800.Google Scholar
  101. Saleh, M.H. and Tan, B. (1991) Separation and identification of cis/trans carotenoid isomers. J. Agric. Food Chem., 39, 1438–43.Google Scholar
  102. Sauberlich, H.E., Hodges, R.E., Wallace, D.L. et al. (1974) Vitamin A metabolism and requirements in the human studied with the use of labeled retinol. Vit. Horm., 32, 251–75.Google Scholar
  103. Scott, K.J. (1992) Observations of some of the problems associated with the analysis of carotenoids in foods by HPLC. Food Chem., 45, 357–64.Google Scholar
  104. Schwieter, U. and Isler, O. (1967) Vitamins A and carotene. II. Chemistry. In The Vitamins. Chemistry, Physiology, Pathology, Methods, 2nd edn, Vol. I (eds W.H. Sebrell, Jr and R.S. Harris), Academic Press, New York, pp. 5–99.Google Scholar
  105. Sharma, R.V., Mathur, S.N., Dmitrovskii, A.A. et al. (1977) Studies on the metabolism of 13-carotene and apo-(3-carotenoids in rats and chickens. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 486, 183–94.Google Scholar
  106. Simpson, K.L. and Chichester, C.O. (1981) Metabolism and nutritional significance of carotenoids. Ann. Rev. Nutr., 1, 351–74.Google Scholar
  107. Sivell, L.M., Wenlock, R.W. and Jackson, P.A. (1982) Determination of vitamin D and retinoid activity in eggs by HPLC. Human Nutr. Appl. Nutr., 36A, 430–7.Google Scholar
  108. Sivell, L.M., Bull, N.L., Buss, D.H. et al. (1984) Vitamin A activity in foods of animal origin. J. Sci. Food Agric., 35, 931–9.Google Scholar
  109. Speek, A.J., Temalilwa, C.R. and Schrijver, J. (1986) Determination of (3-carotene content and vitamin A activity of vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. Food Chem., 19, 65–74.Google Scholar
  110. Sporn, M.B. and Roberts, A.B. (1984) Biological methods for analysis and assay of retinoids — relationships between structure and activity. In The Retinoids, Vol. 1 (eds M.B. Sporn, A.B. Roberts and De W.S. Goodman), Academic Press, Inc., New York, pp. 235–79.Google Scholar
  111. Sporn, M.B., Roberts, A.B. and Goodman, D.S. (1984) Introduction. In The Retinoids, Vol. 1 (eds M.B. Sporn, A.B. Roberts and De W.S. Goodman), Academic Press, Inc. ( London) Ltd, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  112. Stancher, B. and Zonta, F. (1982) High performance liquid chromatographic determination of carotene and vitamin A and its geometric isomers in foods. Applications to cheese analysis. J. Chromat., 238, 217–25.Google Scholar
  113. Stancher, B. and Zonta, F. (1984) High-performance liquid chromatography of the unsaponifiable from samples of marine and freshwater fish: fractionation and identification of retinol (vitamin A1) and dehydroretinol (vitamin A2) isomers. J. Chromat., 287, 353–64.Google Scholar
  114. Stancher, B., Zonta, F. and Bogoni, P. (1987) Determination of olive oil carotenoids by HPLC. J. Micronutr. Anal., 3, 97–106.Google Scholar
  115. Sweeney, J.P. and Marsh, A.C. (1971) Effect of processing on provitamin A in vegetables. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 59, 238–43.Google Scholar
  116. Tan, B. (1988) Analytical and preparative chromatography of tomato paste carotenoids. J. Food Sci., 53, 954–9.Google Scholar
  117. Tannenbaum, S.R., Young, V.R. and Archer, M.C. (1985) Vitamins and minerals. In Food Chemistry, 2nd edn (ed. O.R. Fennema), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 477–544.Google Scholar
  118. Tee, E.-S. and Lim, C.-L. (1991) Carotenoid composition and content of Malaysian vegetables and fruits by the AOAC and HPLC methods. Food Chem., 41, 309–39.Google Scholar
  119. Tee, E.-S. and Lim, C.-L. (1992) Re-analysis of vitamin A values of selected Malaysian foods of animal origin by the AOAC and HPLC methods. Food Chem., 45, 289–96.Google Scholar
  120. Thompson, J.N. (1982) Trace analysis of vitamins by liquid chromatography. In Trace Analysis, Vol. II (ed. J.F. Lawrence), Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–67.Google Scholar
  121. Thompson, J.N. (1986) Problems of official methods and new techniques for analysis of foods and feeds for vitamin A. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 69, 727–38.Google Scholar
  122. Thompson, J.N. and Duval, S. (1989) Determination of vitamin A in milk and infant formula by HPLC. J. Micronutr. Anal., 6, 147–59.Google Scholar
  123. Thompson, J.N. and Maxwell, W.B. (1977) Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography of vitamin A in margarine, infant formula, and fortified milk. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 60, 766–71.Google Scholar
  124. Thompson, J.N., Hatina, G. and Maxwell, W.B. (1980) High performance liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin A in margarine, milk, partially skimmed milk, and skimmed milk. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 63, 894–8.Google Scholar
  125. Thompson, J.N., Hatina, G., Maxwell, W.B. and Duval, S. (1982) High performance liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin D in fortified milks, margarine and infant formulas. J. Ass. Off Analyt. Chem., 65, 624–31.Google Scholar
  126. Underwood, B.A. (1984) Vitamin A in animal and human nutrition. In The Retinoids, Vol. 1 (eds M.B. Sporn, A.B. Roberts and D.S. Goodman), Academic Press, Inc., New York, pp. 281–392.Google Scholar
  127. Wang, X.-D., Tang, G.-W., Fox, J.G. et al. (1991) Enzymatic conversion of 13- carotene into ß-apo-carotenals and retinoids by human, monkey, ferret, and rat tissues. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 285, 8–16.Google Scholar
  128. Widicus, W.A. and Kirk, J.R. (1979) High performance liquid chromatographic determination of vitamins A and E in cereal products. J. Ass. Off Analyt. Chem., 62, 637–41.Google Scholar
  129. Woollard, D.C. and Fairweather, J.P. (1985) The storage stability of vitamin A in fortified ultra-high temperature processed milk. J. Micronutr. Anal., 1, 13–21.Google Scholar
  130. Woollard, D.C. and Indyk, H. (1986) The HPLC analysis of vitamin A isomers in dairy products and their significance in biopotency estimations. J. Micronutr. Anal., 2, 125–46.Google Scholar
  131. Woollard, D.C. and Indyk, H. (1989) The distribution of retinyl esters in milks and milk products. J. Micronutr. Anal., 5, 35–52.Google Scholar
  132. Woollard, D.C. and Woollard, G.A. (1981) Determination of vitamin A in fortified milk powders using high performance liquid chromatography. NZ J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 16, 99–112.Google Scholar
  133. Zahar, M. and Smith, D.E. (1990) Vitamin A quantification in fluid dairy products: rapid method for vitamin A extraction for high performance liquid chromatography. J. Dairy Sci., 73, 3402–7.Google Scholar
  134. Zechmeister, L. (1962) Cis-trans Isomeric Carotenoids, Vitamin A and Arylpolyenes, Springer-Verlag, Vienna.Google Scholar
  135. Ziegler, R.G. (1989) A review of epidemiologic evidence that carotenoids reduce the risk of cancer. J. Nutr., 119, 116–22.Google Scholar
  136. Ziegler, R.G. (1991) Vegetables, fruits, and carotenoids and the risk of cancer. Am. J. Clin Nutr., 53, 251S - 9S.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© G.F.M. Ball 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. F. M. Ball
    • 1
  1. 1.Windsor, BerkshireEngland

Personalised recommendations