Advertisement

Abstract

This chapter will discuss the several diseases that H. pylori is proved, or suspected, to cause. Two aspects impress: firstly, that this discovery has changed our perception of these diseases totally; secondly, that H. pylori causes different diseases in different people. Therefore, for each disease, it is interesting to ask not only whether H. pylori causes it, but also why the disease occurs in that particular person. Dixon has studied the histopathology of H. pylori infection, and recently written an excellent review of it [1].

Keywords

Gastric Cancer Duodenal Ulcer Pylorus Infection Acid Secretion Intestinal Metaplasia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Dixon MF. Histological responses to H. pylori infection: gastritis, atrophy and preneoplasia. In: Calam J, ed. Baillière’s Clinical Gastroenterology: Helicobacter pylori. London: Baillière Tindall, 1995: (in press).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marshall BJ. Campylobacter pyloridis and gastritis. J Infect Dis 1986; 153: 650–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Graham DY, Go MF, Evans DJJ. Review article: urease, gastric ammonium/ammonia, and Helicobacter pylori — the past, the present, and recommendations for future research. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1992; 6:659–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marshall BJ. Virulence and pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1991; 6:121–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Denizot Y, Sobhani I, Rambaud JC et al. Paf-acether synthesis by Helicobacter pyloriGut 1990; 31:1242–1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Crabtree JE, Peichl P, Wyatt JI et al. Gastric interleukin-8 and IgA IL-8 autoantibodies in Helicobacter pylori infection. Scand J Immunol 1993; 37:65–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Morris AJ, Ali MR, Nicholson GI et al. Long-term follow-up of voluntary ingestion of Helicobacter pyloriAnn Intern Med 1991; 114:662–663.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ramsey EJ, Carey KV, Peterson WL et al. Epidemic gastritis with hypochlorhydria. Gastroenterology 1979; 76:1449–1457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Graham DY, Alpert LC, Smith JL, Yoshimura HH. Iatrogenic Campylobacter pylori infection is a cause of epidemic achlorhydria. Am J Gastroenterol 1988; 83:974–980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cave DR, Vargas M. Effect of a Campylobacter pylori protein on acid secretion by parietal cells. Lancet 1989; ii: 187–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Noach LA, Bosma NB et al. Mucosal tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-8 production in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. Scand J Gastroenterol 1994; 29:425–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tache Y, Saperas E. Potent inhibition of gastric acid secretion and ulcer formation by centrally and peripherally administered interleukin-1. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1992; 664: 353–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hunt RH. Campylobacter pylori and spontaneous hypochlor-hydria. In: Rathbone BJ, Heatley RV, eds. Campylobacter pylori and gastroduodenal disease. London: Blackwell, 1989:176–184.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Axon ATR. Acute infection with H. pylori. In: Hunt RH, Tytgat GNJ, eds. Helicobacter pylori: Basic mechanisms to clinical cure. Lancaster: Kluwer Academic Publications, 1994:407–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wiersinga WM, Tytgat GN. Clinical recovery owing to target parietal cell failure in a patient with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Gastroenterology 1977; 73:1413–1417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Faber K. Chronic gastritis in relation to achylia and ulcer. Lancet 1927; i: 901.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Strickland RG, Mackay IR. A reappraisal of the nature and significance of chronic atrophic gastritis. Am J Dig Dis 1973; 18: 426–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Glass GBJ, Pitchumoni CS. Atrophic gastritis. Hum Pathol 1975; 6:219–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Misiewicz JJ, Tytgat GNJ, Goodwin CS. The Sydney system: a new classification of gastritis. J Hepatol Gastroenterol 1991; 6: 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hessey SJ, Spencer J, Wyatt JI et al. Bacterial adhesion and disease activity in Helicobacter associated chronic gastritis. Gut 1990; 31:134–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boren T, Falk P, Roth KA et al. Attachment of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric epithelium mediated by blood group antigens. Science 1993; 262:1892–1895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sobala GM, Wyatt JI, Dixon MF. Histological aspects of atrophic gastritis. In: Holt PR, Russell RM, eds. Chronic gastritis and hypochlorhydria in the elderly. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1993:49–68.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bayerdorffer E, Lehn N, Hatz R et al. Difference in expression of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in antrum and body. Gastroenterology 1992; 102:1575–1582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Graham DY, Go MF. Helicobacter pylori: current status. Gastroenterology 1993; 105:279–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Blaser MJ. Hypotheses on the pathogenesis and natural history of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 720–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Christensen AH, Gjorup T, Hilden J et al Observer homogeneity in the histologic diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Latent class analysis, kappa coefficient, and repeat frequency. Scand J Gastroenterol 1992; 27:933–939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Crabtree J, Wyatt J. Host responses. In: Northfield TC, Mendall M, Goggin PM, eds. Helicobacter pylori infection. Lancaster: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993:40–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hu LT, Mobley HL. Expression of catalytically active recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease at wild-type levels in Escherichia coll Infect Immun 1993; 61:2563–2569.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nielsen H, Birkholz S, Andersen LP, Moran AP. Neutrophil activation by Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharides. J Infect Dis 1994; 170:135–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dunn BE, Roop RM, Sung CC et al Identification and purification of a cpn60 heat shock protein homolog from Helicobacter pylori. Infect Immun 1992; 60:1946–1951.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cover TL, Blaser MJ. Purification and characterization of the vacuolating toxin from Helicobacter pylori. J Biol Chem 1992; 267: 10570–10575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tummuru MK, Cover TL, Blaser MJ. Cloning and expression of a high-molecular-mass major antigen of Helicobacter pylori: evidence of linkage to cytotoxin production. Infect Immun 1993; 61:1799–1809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Crabtree JE, Shallcross TM, Heatley RV, Wyatt JI. Mucosal tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in patients with Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. Gut 1991; 32: 1473–1477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wee A, Teh M, Raju GC. Expression of HLA-DR antigen in different histological types of gastric polyp. J Clin Pathol 1992; 45:509–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Beales ILP, Davey N, Scunes D et al HLA Class II type and H. pylori-induced gastric atrophy (abstract). Gut 1994; 35(suppl 5): S45.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Azuma T, Konishi J, Tanaka Y et al. Contribution of HLA-DQA gene to host’s response against Helicobacter pylori (letter). Lancet 1994; 343:542–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Davies GR, Simmonds NJ, Stevens TR et al. Mucosal reactive oxygen metabolite production in duodenal ulcer disease. Gut 1992;33:1467–1472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sobala GM, Schorah CJ, Shires S et al. Effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori on gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations. Gut 1993; 34:1038–1041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Phull PS, Gower JD, Price AB et al a-Tocopherol (vitamin E) antioxidant levels in chronic gastritis: correlation with mucosal neutrophil infiltration (abstract). Gut 1993; 34(suppl 1): S34.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hansson LE, Nyren O, Bergstrom R et al. Nutrients and gastric cancer risk. A population-based case-control study in Sweden. Int J Cancer 1994; 57:638–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Parsonnet J, Hansen S, Rodriguez L et alHelicobacter pylori infection and gastric lymphoma. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1267–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Eidt S, Stolte M. Prevalence of lymphoid follicles and aggregates in Helicobacter pylori gastritis in antral and body mucosa. J Clin Pathol 1993; 46:832–835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Genta RM, Hamner HW, Graham DY. Gastric lymphoid follicles in Helicobacter pylori infection: frequency, distribution, and response to triple therapy. Hum Pathol 1993; 24:577–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rosh JR, Kurfist LA, Benkov KJ et alHelicobacter pylori and gastric lymphonodular hyperplasia in children. Am f Gastroenterol 1992; 87:135–139.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wotherspoon AC, Doglioni C, Diss TC et al Regression of primary low-grade B-cell gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Lancet 1993; 342:575–577.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wright NA, Pike C, Elia G. Induction of a novel epidermal growth factor-secreting cell lineage by mucosal ulceration in human gastrointestinal stem cells. Nature 1990; 343: 82–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sarosiek J, Slomiany BL, Slomiany A, Gabryelewicz A. Lysolecithin and glyceroglucolipids in gastric secretion of patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer. Scand J Gastroenterol 1983;18:935–938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kuipers EJ, van Uffelen CWJ, Pals G et alHelicobacter pylori and gastric mucosal atrophy (abstract). Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: 1307.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Neithercut WD, Greig MA, Hossack M, McColl KE. Suicidal destruction of Helicobacter pylori: metabolic consequence of intracellular accumulation of ammonia. J Clin Pathol 1991; 44: 380–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Karnes WE Jr, Samloff IM, Siurala M et al. Positive serum antibody and negative tissue staining for Helicobacter pylori in subjects with atrophic body gastritis. Gastroenterology 1991; 101:167–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Negrini R, Lisato L, Zanella I et alHelicobacter pylori infection induces antibodies cross-reacting with human gastric mucosa. Gastroenterology 1991; 101:437–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Andersen LP, Gaarslev K. IgG subclass antibodies against Helicobacter pylori heat-stable antigens in normal persons and in dyspeptic patients. APMIS 1992; 100: 747–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mathialagan R, Loizou S, Beales ILP et al. Who gets false-negative H. pylori (HP) ELISA results? (abstract). Gut 1994; 35(suppl5):Sl.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hermaszewski RA, Webster AD. Primary hypogammaglobulinemia: a survey of clinical manifestations and complications. Q J Med 1993; 86:31–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Craanen ME, Blok P, Dekker W, Ferwerda J, Tytgat GN. Subtypes of intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori. Gut 1992; 33:597–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sobala GM, O’Connor HJ, Dewar EP, King RF, Axon AT, Dixon MF. Bile reflux and intestinal metaplasia in gastric mucosa. J Clin Pathol 1993; 46:235–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wyatt JI, Dixon MF. Campylobacter-associated chronic gastritis. Pathol Annu 1990; 25: 75–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sipponen P, Kekki M, Siurala M. The Sydney System: epidemiology and natural history of chronic gastritis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1991; 6:244–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wyatt JI, Rathbone BJ, Sobala GM et al. Gastric epithelium in the duodenum: its association with Helicobacter pylori and inflammation. J Clin Pathol 1990; 43:981–986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tatsuta M, Iishi H, Yamamura H et al. Enhancement by tetragastrin of experimental induction of gastric epithelium in the duodenum. Gut 1989; 30:311–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Parrish JA, Rawlins DC. Intestinal mucosa in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Gut 1965; 6:286–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rhodes J, Evans KT, Lawrie JH, Forrest AP. Coarse mucosal folds in the duodenum. Q J Med 1968; 37:151–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Solcia E, Villani L, Fiocca R et al. Effects of eradication of H. pylori on gastritis in duodenal ulcer patients. Scand J Gastroenterology 1994; 29(suppl 201): 28–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wyatt JI, Rathbone BJ, Dixon MF, Heatley RV. Campylobacter pyloridis and acid induced gastric metaplasia in the pathogenesis of duodenitis. J Clin Pathol 1987; 40:841–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Borody TJ, Andrews P, Jankiewicz E et al. Apparent reversal of early gastric mucosal atrophy after triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori. Am J Gastroenterol 1993; 88:1266–1268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Labenz J, Gyenes E, Ruhl GH et al [Is Helicobacter pylori gastritis a macroscopic diagnosis?]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1993; 118: 176–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ihamaki T, Varis K, Siurala M. Morphological, functional and immunological state of the gastric mucosa in gastric carcinoma families. Comparison with a computer-matched family sample. Scand J Gastroenterol 1979; 14: 801–812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Langman MJS. The epidemiology of chronic digestive disease. London: Edward Arnold, 1979.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bonnevie O. The incidence of duodenal ulcer in Copenhagen county. Scand J Gastroenterol 1975; 10:385–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Brinton W. On the pathology, symptoms and treatment of ulcer of the stomach. London: Churchill, 1867.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Susser S, Stein K. Civilisation and peptic ulcer. Lancet 1962; i: 115–118.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    McCarthy DM. Smoking and ulcers — time to quit (editorial). N Engl J Med 1984; 311:726–728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Somerville K, Faulkner G, Langman M. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and bleeding peptic ulcer. Lancet 1986; i: 462–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sonnenberg A, Muller Lissner SA, Vogel E et al Predictors of duodenal ulcer healing and relapse. Gastroenterology 1981; 81: 1061–1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Paffenbarger RS Jr, Wing AL, Hyde RT. Chronic disease in former college students: 13. Early precursors of peptic ulcer. Am J Epidemiol 1974; 100:307–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Malhotra SL. A comparison of unrefined wheat and rice diets in the management of duodenal ulcer. Postgrad Med J 1978; 54: 6–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gillberg R, Kastrup W, Mobacken H, Stockbrugger R, Ahren C. Gastric morphology and function in dermatitis herpetiformis and in coeliac disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 1985; 20:133–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Martin DF, Hollanders D, May SJ, Ravenscroft MM, Tweedle DE, Miller JP. Difference in relapse rates of duodenal ulcer after healing with Cimetidine or tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate. Lancet 1981; i: 7–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Marshall BJ, Warren JR. Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet 1984; i: 1311–1315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Marshall BJ, Goodwin CS, Warren JR et al. Prospective doubleblind trial of duodenal ulcer relapse after eradication of Campylobacter pylori. Lancet 1988; ii: 1437–1442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rauws EA, Tytgat GN. Cure of duodenal ulcer associated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Lancet 1990; 335:1233–1235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tytgat G, Dixon M. Role in peptic ulcer disease: Overview. In: Northfield TC, Mendall M, Goggin PM, eds. Helicobacter pylori infection. Lancaster: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993:75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    McColl KE, el Nujumi AM, Chittajallu RS et al. A study of the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori negative chronic duodenal ulceration. Gut 1993; 34: 762–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Labenz J, Borsch G. Role of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the prevention of peptic ulcer bleeding relapse. Digestion 1994; 55: 19–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Graham DY, Hepps KS, Ramirez FC et al. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori reduces the rate of rebleeding in peptic ulcer disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 1993; 28:939–942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Reinbach DH, Cruickshank G, McColl KE. Acute perforated duodenal ulcer is not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Gut 1993; 34:1344–1347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rotter JI. The genetics of peptic ulcer: more than one gene, more than one disease. In: Steinberg AG, Beam AG, Motulsky AG et al., eds. Progress in Medical Genetics. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 1980:1–58.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Stewart DN, Winser DM. Incidence of perforated peptic ulcer: effect of heavy air-raids. Lancet 1942; i: 256–261.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Blair AJ, Feldman M, Barnett C et al. Detailed comparison of basal and food-stimulated gastric acid secretion rates and serum gastrin concentrations in duodenal ulcer patients and normal subjects. J Clin Invest 1987; 79:582–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kirkpatrick JR, Lawrie JH, Forrest AP, Campbell H. The short pentagastrin test in the investigation of gastric disease. Gut 1969;10:760–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Walsh JH, Richardson CT, Fordtran JS. pH dependence of acid secretion and gastrin release in normal and ulcer subjects. J Clin Invest 1975; 55:462–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Moss S, Calam J. Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcers: the present position. Gut 1992; 33:289–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sjovall M, Lindstedt G, Olbe L, Lundell L. Defective inhibition of gastrin release by antral distension in duodenal ulcer patients. Digestion 1992; 51:1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kihl B, Olbe L. Inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion by graded intraduodenal administration of oleic acid in man. Scand J Gastroenterol 1981; 16:121–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Malagelada JR, Longstreth GF, Deering TB et al Gastric secretion and emptying after ordinary meals in duodenal ulcer. Gastroenterology 1977; 73:989–994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    McHenry L, Jr., Vuyyuru L, Schubert ML. Helicobacter pylori and duodenal ulcer disease: the somatostatin link? Gastroenterology 1993;104:1573–1575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Levi S, Beardshall K, Haddad G et al. Campylobacter pylori and duodenal ulcers: the gastrin link. Lancet 1989; i: 1167–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Beardshall K, Moss S, Gill J et al. Suppression of Helicobacter pylori reduces gastrin releasing peptide stimulated gastrin release in duodenal ulcer patients. Gut 1992; 33:601–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Graham DY, Opekun A, Lew GM, Klein PD, Walsh JH. Helicobacter pylori-associated exaggerated gastrin release in duodenal ulcer patients. The effect of bombesin infusion and urea ingestion. Gastroenterology 1991; 100:1571–1575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Moss SF, Legon S, Bishop AE, Polak JM, Calam J. Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric somatostatin in duodenal ulcer disease. Lancet 1992; 340:930–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kaneko H, Nakada K, Mitsuma T et al. Helicobacter pylori infection induces a decrease in immunoreactive-somatostatin concentrations of human stomach. Dig Dis Sci 1992; 37: 409–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sipponen P, Seppala K. Gastric carcinoma: failed adaptation to Helicobacter pylori. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1992; 193: 33–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sipponen P. Natural history of gastritis and its relationship to peptic ulcer disease. Digestion 1992; 51(suppl 1): 70–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Fong TL, Dooley CP, Dehesa Metal. Helicobacter pylori infection in pernicious anemia: a prospective controlled study. Gastroenterology 1991; 100:328–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Moss SF, Calam J. Acid secretion and sensitivity to gastrin in duodenal ulcer patients: effect of eradication of H. pylori. Gut 1993; 34:888–892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tarnasky PR, Kovacs TO, Sytnik B, Walsh JH. Asymptomatic H. pylori infection impairs pH inhibition of gastrin and acid secretion during second hour of peptone meal stimulation. Dig Dis Sci 1993; 38:1681–1687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    El-Omar E, Penman I, Dorrian CA et al. Eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection lowers gastrin-mediated acid secretion by two-thirds in duodenal ulcer patients. Gut 1993; 34: 1060–1065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Saita H, Murakami M, Dekigai H, Kita T. Effects of ammonia and monochloramine on gastrin release and acid secretion (abstract). Gastroenterology 1993; 104: A183.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Golodner EH, Territo MC, Walsh JH, Soil AH. Stimulation of gastrin release from cultured canine G cells by Helicobacter pylori and mononuclear cells (abstract). Gastroenterology 1992; 102: A630.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Golodner EH, Soil AH, Walsh JH, Calam J. Release of gastrin from cultured canine G-cells by interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (abstract). Gastroenterology 1993; 104: A89.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Figura N, Guglielmetti P, Rossolini A et al Cytotoxin production by Campylobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with peptic ulcers and from patients with chronic gastritis only. J Clin Microbiol 1989; 27:225–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Crabtree JE, Taylor JD, Wyatt JI et al. Mucosal IgA recognition of Helicobacter pylori 120 kDa protein, peptic ulceration, and gastric pathology. Lancet 1991; 338:332–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bonnevie O. The incidence of gastric ulcer in Copenhagen county. Scand J Gastroenterol 1975; 10:231–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lambert JR, Lin SK. Prevalence/disease correlates of H. pylori. In: Hunt RH, Tytgat GNJ, eds. Helicobacter pylori: basic mechanisms to clinical cure. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1994: 95–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Graham DY, Lew GM, Klein PD et al. Effect of treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection on the long-term recurrence of gastric or duodenal ulcer. A randomized, controlled study. Ann Intern Med 1992; 116: 705–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Karita M, Morshed MG, Ouchi K, Okita K. Bismuth-free triple therapy for eradicating Helicobacter pylori and reducing the gastric ulcer recurrence rate. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: 1032–1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Labenz J, Borsch G. Evidence for the essential role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric ulcer disease. Gut 1994; 35:19–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kihira K, Sato K, Yoshida Y et al. The effect of the eradication of H. pylori on the intractable ulcer. Nippon Rinsho 1993; 51: 3285–3288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Massoomi F, Savage J, Destache CJ. Omeprazole: a comprehensive review. Pharmacotherapy 1993; 13:46–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Bodemar G, Walan A, Lundquist G. Food-stimulated acid secretion measured by intragastric titration with bicarbonate in patients with duodenal and gastric ulcer disease and in controls. Scand J Gastroenterol 1978; 13:911–918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kikoler DJ, Beck S. Benign gastric ulcers and pernicious anemia. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1990; 90:535–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Niemela S, Heikkila J, Lehtola J. Duodenogastric bile reflux in patients with gastric ulcer. Scand J Gastroenterol 1984; 19: 896–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gear M, Whitehead R. Chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer. J Pathol 1970; 101: P8.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Playford RJ, Hanby, AM, Quinn C, Calam J. Influence of inflammation and atrophy on pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) levels within the gastric mucosa. Gastroenterology 1994;106:735–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Wong J, Loewenthal J. Chronic gastric ulcer in the rat produced by wounding at the fundo-antral junction. Gastroenterology 1976; 71:416–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Piasecki C. Role of ischaemia in the initiation of peptic ulcer. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1977; 59:476–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Griffin MR, Piper JM, Daugherty JR, Snowden M, Ray WA. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and increased risk for peptic ulcer disease in elderly persons. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:257–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Graham DY, Lidsky MD, Cox AM et al. Long-term nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use and Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastroenterology 1991; 100:1653–1657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Laine L, Marin Sorensen M, Weinstein WM. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-associated gastric ulcers do not require Helicobacter pylori for their development. Am J Gastroenterol 1992; 87:1398–1402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Caselli M, Pazzi P, LaCorte R et alCampylobacter-like organisms, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and gastric lesions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Digestion 1989; 44: 101–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Jones ST, Clague RB, Eldridge J, Jones DM. Serological evidence of infection with Helicobacterpylori may predict gastrointestinal intolerance to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1991; 30: 16–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Goggin PM, Collins DA, Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and its effect on symptoms and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastrointestinal damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Gut 1993;34:1677–1680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lanza FL, Evans DG, Graham DY. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on the severity of gastroduodenal mucosal injury after the acute administration of naproxen or aspirin to normal volunteers. Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86:735–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Loeb DS, Talley NJ, Ahlquist DA et al. Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and gastroduodenal injury: the role of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 1992; 102:1899–1905.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hudson N, Taha AS, Sturrock RD et al The influence of Helicobacter pylori colonisation on gastroduodenal ulceration in patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (abstract). Gut 1992; 33(suppl. 1): S42.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Martin DF, Montgomery E, Dobek AS, Patrissi GA, Peura DA. Campylobacter pylori, NSAIDs, and smoking: risk factors for peptic ulcer disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1989; 84:1268–1272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Dixon MF, O’Connor HJ, Axon AT et al. Reflux gastritis: distinct histopathological entity? J Clin Pathol 1986; 39: 524–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Taha AS, Nakshabendi I, Lee FD et al. Chemical gastritis and Helicobacter pylori related gastritis in patients receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: comparison and correlation with peptic ulceration. J Clin Pathol 1992; 45: 135–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Bianchi Porro G, Parente F. Non-ulcer dyspepsia and related conditions. In: Calam J, ed. Baillière’s Clinical Gastroenterology: Helicobacter pylori. London: Baillière Tindall, 1995: (in press).Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Thompson WG, Heaton KW. Functional bowel disorders in apparently healthy people. Gastroenterology 1980; 79:283–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Anonymous. Management of dyspepsia: report of a working party. Lancet 1988; i: 576–579.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lagarde SP, Spiro HM. Non-ulcer dyspepsia. Clin Gastroenterol 1984;13:437–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Talley NJ, Weaver AL, Tesmer DL, Zinsmeister AR. Lack of discriminant value of dyspepsia subgroups in patients referred for upper endoscopy. Gastroenterology 1993; 105: 1378–1386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Klauser AG, Voderholzer WA, Knesewitsch PA et al. What is behind dyspepsia? Dig Dis Sci 1993; 38:147–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Graham DY, Smith JL, Patterson DJ. Why do apparently healthy people use antacid tablets? Am J Gastroenterol 1983; 78: 257–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Manning AP, Thompson WG, Heaton KW, Morris AF. Towards positive diagnosis of the irritable bowel. Br Med J 1978; ii: 653–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Talley NJ. Spectrum of chronic dyspepsia in the presence of the irritable bowel syndrome. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1991; 182: 7–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Talley NJ, Zinsmeister AR, Schleck CD, Melton LJ. Dyspepsia and dyspepsia subgroups: a population-based study. Gastroenterology 1992; 102:1259–1268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Sielaff F. Coincidence between chronic dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (abstract). Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1995; 2(suppl): S105-S106.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Rokkas T, Pursey C, Uzoechina E et alCampylobacter pylori and non-ulcer dyspepsia. Am J Gastroenterol 1987; 82:1149–1152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Pettross CW, Appleman MD, Cohen H et al Prevalence of Campylobacter pylori and association with antral mucosal histology in subjects with and without upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Dig Dis Sci 1988; 33:649–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Morris A, Nicholson G. Ingestion of Campylobacter pyloridis causes gastritis and raised fasting gastric pH. Am J Gastroenterol 1987; 82:192–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Dooley CP, Cohen H, Fitzgibbons PL et al Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in asymptomatic persons. N Engl J Med 1989; 321:1562–1566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Tucci A, Corinaldesi R, Stanghellini V et alHelicobacter pylori infection and gastric function in patients with chronic idiopathic dyspepsia. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 768–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Loffeld RJ, Potters HV, Stobberingh E et alCampylobacter associated gastritis in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia: a double blind placebo controlled trial with colloidal bismuth subcitrate. Gut 1989; 30:1206–1212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Goh KL, Parasakthi N, Peh SC et alHelicobacter pylori infection and non-ulcer dyspepsia: the effect of treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate. Scand J Gastroenterol 1991; 26: 1123–1131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Marshall BJ, Valenzuela JE, McCallum RW et al Bismuth subsalicylate suppression of Helicobacter pylori in nonulcer dyspepsia: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci 1993;38:1674–1680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Patchett S, Beattie S, Leen E et al Eradicating Helicobacter pylori and symptoms of non-ulcer dyspepsia. Br Med J 1991; 303: 1238–1240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    McCarthy C, Patchett S, Collins RM et al Long term prospective study of Helicobacter pylori in nonulcer dyspepsia. Dig Dis Sci 1995; 40:114–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Kerlin P. Postprandial antral hypomotility in patients with idiopathic nausea and vomiting. Gut 1989; 30:54–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Malagelada JR, Stanghellini V. Manometric evaluation of functional upper gut symptoms. Gastroenterology 1985; 88: 1223–1231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wegener M, Borsch G, Schaffstein J et al. Are dyspeptic symptoms in patients with Campylobacter pylori-associated type B gastritis linked to delayed gastric emptying? Am J Gastroenterol 1988; 83: 737–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Pieramico O, Ditschuneit H, Malfertheiner P. Gastrointestinal motility in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia: a role for Helicobacter pylori infection? Am J Gastroenterol 1993; 88: 364–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Ormand JE, Talley NJ, Shorter RG et al Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in specific forms of gastritis. Further evidence supporting a pathogenic role for H. pylori in chronic nonspecific gastritis. Dig Dis Sci 1991; 36:142–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Wolfsen HC, Carpenter HA, Talley NJ. Ménétrier’s disease: a form of hypertrophic gastropathy or gastritis? Gastroenterology 1993;104:1310–1319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Stolte M, Batz C, Eidt S. Giant fold gastritis — a special form of Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. Z Gastroenterol 1993; 31: 289–293.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Bayerdorffer E, Ritter MM, Hatz R et al. Healing of protein losing hypertrophic gastropathy by eradication of Helicobacter pylori — is Helicobacter pylori a pathogenic factor in Ménétrier’s disease? Gut 1994; 35: 701–704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    McCormick PA, Sankey EA, Cardin F et al. Congestive gastropathy and Helicobacter pylori: an endoscopic and morphometric study. Gut 1991; 32:351–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Guslandi M, Sorghi M, Foppa L, Tittobello A. Congestive gastropathy versus chronic gastritis: a comparison of some pathophysiological aspects. Digestion 1993; 54:160–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Parkin DM, Pisani P, Ferlay J. Estimates of the worldwide incidence of eighteen major cancers in 1985. Int J Cancer 1993; 54:594–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Munoz N. Descriptive epidemiology of gastric cancer. In: Reed RI, Hill MJ, eds. Gastric carcinogenesis. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1993:51–69.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Barker DJ, Coggon D, Osmond C, Wickham C. Poor housing in childhood and high rates of stomach cancer in England and Wales. Br J Cancer 1990; 61:575–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Correa P, Fox J, Fontham E et al. Helicobacter pylori and gastric carcinoma. Serum antibody prevalence in populations with contrasting cancer risks. Cancer 1990; 66:2569–2574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Mitchell HM, Li YY, Hu PJ et al. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in southern China: identification of early childhood as the critical period for acquisition. J Infect Dis 1992; 166:149–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Palli D, Decarli A, Cipriani F et al. Helicobacter pylori antibodies in areas of Italy at varying gastric cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1993; 2: 37–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Sierra R, Munoz N, Pena AS et al. Antibodies to Helicobacter pylori and pepsinogen levels in children from Costa Rica: comparison of two areas with different risks for stomach cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1992; 1:449–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Anonymous. Epidemiology of, and risk factors for, Helicobacter pylori infection among 3194 asymptomatic subjects in 17 populations. The EUROGAST Study Group. Gut 1993; 34: 1672–1676.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Forman D, Webb PM. H. pylori and gastric cancer: the significance of the problem. In: Hunt RH, Tytgat GNJ, eds. Helicobacter pylori: basic mechanisms to clinical cure. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1994:461–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Forman D, Newell DG, Fullerton F et al. Association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and risk of gastric cancer: evidence from a prospective investigation. Br Med J 1991; 302: 1302–1305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Parsonnet J, Friedman GD, Vandersteen DP et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of gastric carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1991;325:1127–1131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Nomura A, Stemmermann GN, Chyou PH et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinoma among Japanese Americans in Hawaii. N Engl J Med 1991; 325:1132–1136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Grigioni WF, D’errico A, Milani M et al. Early gastric cancer. Clinico-pathological analysis of 125 cases of early gastric cancer (EGC). Acta Pathol Jpn 1984; 34:979–989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Correa P, Cuello C, Fajardo LF et al. Diet and gastric cancer: nutrition survey in a high-risk area. J Natl Cancer Inst 1983; 70: 673–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Ihamaki T, Sipponen P, Varis K, Kekki M, Siurala M. Characteristics of gastric mucosa which precede occurrence of gastric malignancy: results of long-term follow-up of three family samples. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1991; 186:16–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Parsonnet J, Vandersteen D, Goates J et al. Helicobacter pylori infection in intestinal- and diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinomas [published erratum appears in J Natl Cancer Inst 1991; 83(12): 881]. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991; 83:640–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Mirvish SS. Experimental evidence for inhibition of N-nitroso compound formation as a factor in the negative correlation between vitamin C consumption and the incidence of certain cancers. Cancer Res 1994; 54:1948s-1951s.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Correa P. Is gastric carcinoma an infectious disease? (editorial; comment). N Engl J Med 1991; 325:1170–1171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Feig DI, Reid TM, Loeb LA. Reactive oxygen species in tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 1994; 54:1890s-1894s.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Isaacson PG. Lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Histopathology 1990; 16:617–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Wotherspoon AC, Ortiz Hidalgo C, Falzon MR, Isaacson PG. Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma. Lancet 1991; 338:1175–1176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Clarke CA, Edwards JW, Haddock DRW, Howel Evans AW, McConnell RB, Sheppard PM. ABO blood groups and secretor character in duodenal ulcer. Br Med J 1956; ii: 725–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Muotiala A, Heiander IM, Pyhala L, Kosunen TU, Moran AP. Low biological activity of Helicobacter pylori lipopoly-saccharide. Infect Immun 1992; 60:1714–1716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Aird I, Bentall HH, Mehigan JA, Roberts JAF. The blood groups in relation to peptic ulceration and carcinoma of the colon, rectum, breast and bronchus. Br Med J 1954; ii: 315–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Blaser MJ, Perez-Perez GI, Kleanthous H et al Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains possessing cagA is associated with increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the stomach among Japanese-Americans in Hawaii (abstract). Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89:1356.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Hansson LE, Baron J, Nyren O et al Tobacco, alcohol and the risk of gastric cancer. A population-based case-control study in Sweden. Int J Cancer 1994; 57:26–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© John Calam 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Calam
    • 1
  1. 1.Hammersmith HospitalLondonUK

Personalised recommendations