Survey research has a long tradition not only in social science but also in nursing and medicine. Population surveys have a notable history beginning with the Egyptians who prepared lists of the numbers of heads of families, their relatives and possessions. The first modern census was that of 1790, undertaken in the USA as a basis for the election of representatives to Congress. In Great Britain a census has been performed every 10 years since 1801 (except in 1941). In terms of health care, some of the most important early surveys were conducted by such key historical figures as Florence Nightingale (1863) and James Simpson, Professor of Midwifery at the University of Edinburgh (1869). Thus surveys have an acknowledged place within health services research.
KeywordsToxicity Catheter Hydration Expense Arena
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