Simple goitre (non-endemic, non-toxic goitre) and multinodular goitre

  • I. Ross McDougall


Simple goitre is one of the least simple thyroid disorders with particular regard to its pathogenesis. Henneman’s [1] clinical definition of simple goitre as ‘a benign, diffuse or multinodular enlargement of the thyroid of unknown etiology with normal hormone production occurring sporadically’ is difficult to improve. Studer and Ramelli [2] have defined the condition ‘as a slowly developing diffuse or nodular enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting from excessive replication of epithelial cells with subsequent generation of new follicles of widely differing structure and function’. By convention, goitres whose causes are known are not included under the term simple goitre. Therefore, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, euthyroid Graves’ disease, iodine deficiency, and goit-rogen induced goitre are excluded.


Iodine Deficiency Multinodular Goitre Nodular Goitre Thyroid Status Thoracic Inlet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Henneman, G. (1979) Non-toxic goitre. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 8, 167–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Studer, H. and Ramelli, F. (1982) Simple goitre and its variants: euthyroid and hyperthyroid multinodular goitres. Endocr. Rev., 3, 40–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Studer, H. (1982) A fresh look at an old disease: euthyroid and hyperthyroid nodular goitre. J. Endocri. Invest, 5, 57–68.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Studer, H., Peter, H.J. and Gerber, H. (1989) Natural heterogeneity of thyroid cells: the basis for understanding thyroid function and nodular goitre growth. Endocr. Rev., 10, 125–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Peter, H.J., Studer, H. and Groscurth, P. (1988) Autonomous growth, but not autonomous function, in embryonic thyroids: a clue to understanding autonomous goiter growth? J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 66, 968–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Peters, H.J., Studer, H., Forster, R., et al. (1982) The pathogenesis of ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ follicles in multinodular goitres. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metabol., 55, 941–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lever, E.G., Medeiros-Neto, G.A. and De Groot, L.J. (1983) Inherited disorders of thyroid metabolism. Endocr. Rev., 4, 213–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stanbury, J.B. and Wang, C-A. (1981) Nontoxic goiter, in Thyroid Today, (ed. J.H. Oppenheimer) 4, 1–5.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Drexhage, H.A., Bottazzo, G.F., Doniach, D. et al. (1980) Evidence for growth stimulating immunoglobulins in some goitrous thyroid diseases. Lancet, 2, 287–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Drexhage, H.A., Doniach, D., Bottazzo, G.F. et al. (1982) Detection and clinical significance of antibodies stimulating or blocking thyroid growth in disorders of the thyroid gland, in Current Endocrine Concepts, (ed. E.D. Williams), Praeger Publishers, London pp. 37–55.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    van der Gaag, R.D., Drexhage, H.A., Wiersinga, W.M. et al. (1985) Further studies on growth-stimulating immunoglobulins in euthyroid nonendemic goiter, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 60, 972–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kilpatrick, R., Milne, J.S., Rushbrooke, M. et al (1963) A survey on thyroid enlargement in two general practices in Great Britain. Br. Med. J., 1, 29–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sokal, J.E. (1960) The incidence of thyroid cancer and the problem of malignancy in nodular goiter, in Clinical Endocrinology, (ed. E.B. Astwood), Grune and Stratton, New York, p. 168.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Trotter, W.R. (1962) Diseases of the Thyroid, FA Davis Company, Philadelphia, pp. 133–43.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Burrow, G.N. (1989) Nontoxic goiter — diffuse and nodular, in Thyroid Function and Disease, (eds G.N. Burrow, J.H. Oppenheimer and R. Volpe), WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, London, Toronto, Montreal, Sydney and Tokyo, pp. 141–51.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kay, T.W.H., d’Emden, M.C., Andrews, J.T. et al. (1988) Treatment of non-toxic multinodular goiter with radioactive iodine. Am. J. Med., 84, 19–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Higgins, C.C. (1927) Intrathoracic goiter. Arch. Surg, 15, 895–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Allo, M.D. and Thompson, N.W. (1983) Rationale for the operative management of substernal goiters. Surgery, 94, 969–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Katlic, M.R., Wang, C-A and Grillo, H.C. (1985) Substernal goiter. Ann. Thorac. Surg, 39, 391–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Katlic, M.R., Grillo, H.C. and Wang, C-A. (1985) Substernal goiter: analysis of 80 patients from Massachusetts General Hospital. Arn. J. Surg, 149, 283–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Irwin, R.S., Braman, S.S., Arvanitidis, A.N. et al. (1978) 131I thyroid scanning in preoperative diagnosis of mediastinal goiter. Ann. Intern. Med., 89, 73–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sand, M.E., Laws, H.L., McElvein, R.B. (1983) Substernal and intrathoracic goiter. Reconsideration of surgical approach. Am. Surg., 49, 196–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Glazer, G.M., Axel, L. and Moss, A.A. (1982) CT diagnosis of mediastinal thyroid. A.J.R., 138, 495–8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© I. Ross McDougall 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Ross McDougall
    • 1
  1. 1.Stanford University School of MedicineUSA

Personalised recommendations