Louis XV, whose reign preceded the French Revolution, is said to have commented, “Après moi le déluge”: After me, the deluge. In the history of chemistry we might say, “After the deluge, the deluge”: After the chemical revolution of Lavoisier and the political revolution of France, the number of chemical discoveries—new elements and new laws to describe their interactions—increased dramatically. The French Revolution was a setback for the French Academy of Sciences, but it did little to slow the growth of scientific societies in general. In the 1800s they sprang up in England, France, Prussia, Sweden, Italy, Russia, Spain, Mexico, and the newly united United States. The French Academy itself was reorganized as part of the Institute of France, and it soon regained its former strength. The French Revolution also cut short Lavoisier’s career, but it did little to slow down French science. In fact the revolution promoted chemistry in an unexpected way by furthering the career of a new patron of the sciences: a short, crass-mannered, ill-tempered army general who cheated at cards, Napoleon Bonaparte.
KeywordsSodium Chloride Tuberculosis Chlorine Explosive Carbon Monoxide
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