Uncertainties in the Analysis of M X-Ray Lines of the Rare-Earth Elements

  • J. L. Lábár
  • C. J. Salter


Electron probe x-ray microanalysis by M lines poses some inherent problems similar in a certain respect to those arising during the analysis of light elements. The energy of the radiation is rather low, so that the measurement is more sensitive to absorption and contamination effects and the closeness of other lines is more of a problem. The requirements for the quality of the surface are therefore stricter than usual. Because of the important role of the outer shells in the x-ray generation process, chemical effects can also be pronounced. To make matters worse, the lack of reliable atomic constants (mass absorption coefficients (macs), fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields, relative line intensities etc.) for the M lines is often conspicuous.


Beam Energy Anomalous Absorption Mass Absorption Coefficient Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometer Relative Line Intensity 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Lábár
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. J. Salter
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Institute for Technical Physics of the Hungarian Academy of SciencesBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgy and Science of MaterialsOxford UniversityOxfordUK

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