The Role of Vitamin A in Child Growth, Development and Survival
In animals, fetal development and growth are altered by maternal vitamin A deficiency. Severely deficient pregnant animals experience complications of gestation and often resorb or abort their fetuses, or they produce offsprings with congenital abnormalities affecting several organ systems (Wallington and Underwood, 1986). Newborn and weanling rats fed diets deficient in vitamin A maintain normal growth for a period of weeks then their growth slows, plateaus and declines. These are classic observations in experimental studies conducted in several animal species, and for many years were the basis for the biological assay of vitamin A potency and nutritional adequacy (Moore, 1957). This fact also is the basis for setting basal dietary requirements linked to growth rate throughout the life cycle (FAO/WHO, 1988).
KeywordsPlacebo Zinc Marketing Diarrhea Folate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ananzo, M. A., Lamb, A. J., and Olson, J. A., 1979, Growth, appetite, sequence of pathological signs and survival following the induction of rapid, synchronous vitamin A deficiency in the rat, J. Nutr. 109:1419.Google Scholar
- Beaton, G. H., Martorell, R., L’Abbé, K. A., Edmonston, B., McCabe, G., Ross, A. C., and Harvey, B., Effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation in the control of young child morbidity and mortality in developing countries, Final report to CIDA, 1992.Google Scholar
- DeLuca, L. M. and McDowell, E. M., 1989, Effects of vitamin A status on hamster tracheal epithelium in vivo and in vitro, Food Nutr. Bull. (UNU) 11:20.Google Scholar
- do Vale Pereira, N. D., Abreu, L. V., and Freusberg, O., 1966, Observaçûes clinicas em 64 criança portadoras de hipvitaminose A, Arquivos Catarinenss de Medicina 1:1.Google Scholar
- FAO/WHO Report of a Joint Expert Consultation, 1988, Requirements of vitamin A, iron, folate and vitamin B12, FAO Food & Nutrition Series, No. 23, FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
- Moore, T., 1957, Biological Methods, in “Vitamin A”, T. Moore, ed., Elsevier Publishing Co., London.Google Scholar
- Sommer, A., Tarwotjo, I., Djunaedi, E., West, K. P., Jr., Loeden, A. A., Tilden, R., Mele, L., and the Aceh Study Group, 1986, Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality, Lancet i:L169.Google Scholar
- Udomkesmalee, E., 1992, Overview of vitamin A: globel situation and the Thai experience, in “Integrating Food and Nutrition into Development”, P. Winichagoon, Y. Kachondham, G. A. Attig, K. Tontisirin, eds., Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University of Salaya, Thailand and UNICEF East Asia & Pacific Regional Office, Bangkok.Google Scholar
- Underwood, B. A., 1984, Vitamin A in animal and human nutrition, in “The Retinoids”, M. B. Sporn, A. B. Roberts, D. S. Goodman, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Wallingford, J. C. and Underwood, B. A., 1986, Vitamin A deficiency in pregnancy, lactation, and the nursing child, in “Vitamin A Deficiency and its Control”, J. C. Bauernfeind, ed., Academic Press, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
- West, K. P., Jr., 1991, Dietary vitamin A-deficiency: effects on growth, infection, and mortality, Food Nutr. Bull. (UNU) 13:119.Google Scholar
- WHO/USAID/NEI Report of a Joint Consultation of Principal Investigators, 1992, Vitamin A mortality and morbidity studies, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar