In 1913, vitamin A was first described as a nutritional factor essential for growth and life itself, but another 18 years passed before the chemical nature of vitamin A was elucidated (see Ross, 1991). The term vitamin A is now used to comprise retinol and the retinol precursor, β-carotene, as well as the natural metabolites of retinol which retain growth- and health-promoting activities. A principal active metabolite of vitamin A is retinoic acid, formed in cells through the regulated oxidation of retinol. The term “retinoids” was coined to include both the natural forms of vitamin A and an expanding array of synthetic analogs which bear a structural relationship to retinol or retinoic acid and which generally share some but not all of their biological properties (Sporn and Roberts, 1985; De Luca, 1991; Frickel, 1984).
- Retinoic Acid
- Retinoic Acid Receptor
- Maternal Vitamin
- Retinyl Ester
- Retinoic Acid Response Element
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Ross, A.C., Gardner, E.M. (1994). The Function of Vitamin A in Cellular Growth and Differentiation, and Its Roles during Pregnancy and Lactation. In: Allen, L., King, J., Lönnerdal, B. (eds) Nutrient Regulation during Pregnancy, Lactation, and Infant Growth. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 352. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2575-6_15
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