Experimental Methods and Procedures in Monolayers

  • K. S. Birdi


When a very small amount of a virtually insoluble and nonvolatile organic substance is carefully placed on the surface of water, which has a relatively high surface tension, either of the following results may be observed: (1) The substance may remain as a compact drop (or as a solid mass), leaving the rest of the liquid surface clean, or (2) it may spread out over the entire available surface of the water. The formation of a stable monolayer by any substance is determined by the interactive forces between that substance and the subphase, water.


Surface Viscosity Monomolecular Film Ethyl Laurate Torsion Wire Spread Monolayer 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Birdi
    • 1
  1. 1.The Technical University of DenmarkLyngbyDenmark

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