Advertisement

The Genus Equus in Europe

  • A. Azzaroli
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 180)

Abstract

The genus Equus originated in North America and was derived from the late Hemphillian (late Miocene to earliest Pliocene) Dinohippus (Quinn, 1955). All the Pliocene, Pleistocene, and living monodactyl equids of North America and of the Old World — with the only exception of the possibly early Pliocene Astrohippus stocki Lance 1950 from Mexico — may be united in the genus Equus. Some authors, notably Quinn (1955, 1957), Nobis (1971), and Samson (1975), divided them into a variety of genera and subgenera. This practice will not be followed here and the generic name Equus will be used in the broad, traditional sense. This is because, in spite of significant variation among equids of different ages and geographic ranges, their basic structure remained remarkably uniform.

Keywords

Late Pleistocene Lower Molar Cheek Tooth Limb Bone Present Writer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agustí, J., Moyà-Solà, S., and Pons-Moyà, J., 1987. La sucesìon de mamìferos en el Pleistoceno inferior de Europa: Proposiciòn de una nueva escala bioestratigrâfica. Paleontologia i Evolucio, Memoria Especial No. 1, p. 287–295.Google Scholar
  2. Alberdi, M.T. and Bonadonna, F.P., 1983. El Equus stenonis Cocchi como indicador bioestratigrâfico del Plio-Pleistoceneo en Italia y Espana. VI Reunion, Grupo de Estratigrafia del Terciario y Cuaternario, Santiago-Vigo, p. 169–187.Google Scholar
  3. Alberdi, M.T. and Ruiz Bustos, A., 1985. Descripciòn y significado bioestratigràfico y climàtico de Equus y Hippopotamus en el yacimiento de Venta Micena (Granada). Estudios Geológicos, v. 41, p. 251–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ambrosetti, P. and Cremaschi, M., 1976. Segnalazione di una fauna villafranchiana superiore con Libralces gallicus nei livelli fluviolacustri soprastanti alle faune calabriane ad Arctica islandica dei dintorni di Reggio Emilia. Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana 94 (1975), p. 1361–1374.Google Scholar
  5. Azzaroli, A., 1953. The deer of the Weybourn Crag and Forest Bed of Norfolk. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology, v. 2, p. 1–96. Azzaroli, A., 1965. On the two Villafranchian horses of the Upper Valdarno. Palaeontographia Italica, v$159, p. 1–12, pl. 1–10.Google Scholar
  6. Azzaroli, A., 1966. Pleistocene and living horses of the Old World. Palaeontographia Italica, v. 61, p. 1–46.Google Scholar
  7. Azzaroli, A., 1977. The Villafranchian stage in Italy and the Plio-Pleistocene boundary. Giornale di Geologia, v. 41, p. 61–79.Google Scholar
  8. Azzaroli, A., 1979. On a late Pleistocene ass from Tuscany; with notes on the history of asses. Palaeontographia Italica, v$171, p. 27–47, pl. 12–20.Google Scholar
  9. Azzaroli, A., 1982. On Villafranchian palaearctic equids and their allies. Palaeontographia Italica, v. 72, p. 74–97, pl. 8–10.Google Scholar
  10. Azzaroli, A., 1983. Quaternary mammals and the “end-Villafranchian” dispersal event — a turning point in the history of Eurasia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 44, p. 117–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Azzaroli, A., 1985. On some vertebrate remains of middle Pleistocene age in the Upper Valdarno and Val di Chiana, Tuscany. Palaeontographia Italica, v$173, p. 104–115, pl. 28–30.Google Scholar
  12. Azzaroli, A., 1985a. An Early History of Horsemanship. E. J. Brill, Leiden, vii + 205 p., 105 figs. in text.Google Scholar
  13. Azzaroli, A., 1987. On the occurrence of Equus stenonis in China. Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, v. 25, p. 199–201.Google Scholar
  14. Azzaroli, A. and Napoleone, G., 1982. Magnetostratigraphic investigation of the Upper Sivaliks near Pinjor, India. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, v. 87, p. 739–762.Google Scholar
  15. Azzaroli, A. and Voorhies, M.R., in preparation. The North American species of the genus Equus.Google Scholar
  16. Azzaroli, A., De Giuli, C., Ficcarelli, G., and Torre, D., 1982. Table of the stratigraphie distribution of terrestrial mammalian faunas in Italy from the Pliocene to the early middle Pleistocene. Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, v. 5, p. 55–59.Google Scholar
  17. Azzaroli, A., De Giuli, C., Ficcarelli, G., and Torre, D., 1988. Late Pliocene to early mid-Pleistocene mammalian faunas in Eurasia: Faunal succession and dispersal events. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 66, p. 77–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bajgusheva, V.S., 1971. Iskopaemaja Teriofauna Livenzovskogo Karera (SeveroVostochnoe Priazovie). Materialy po faunam Antropogena SSSR. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta 49, p. 5–28, pl. 1–6.Google Scholar
  19. Bajgusheva, V.S., 1978. Krupnaja Loshad Khaprovskogo Kompleksa Severo-Vostochnogo Priazovija. Izvestia Severo-Kavkazkogo Nauchnogo Zentra Vysshej Shkoly, Estestvennye Nauki, v. 1, p. 98–102.Google Scholar
  20. Bennett, D.K., 1980. Stripes do not a zebra make. Part 1: A cladistic analysis of Equus. Systematic Zoology, v. 29, p. 272–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boeuf, O., 1986. L’Equidé du site Villafranchien de Chilhac (Haute Loire, France): Equus stenonis guthi nov. subsp. Annales de Paléontologie, v. 72, p. 29–67.Google Scholar
  22. Bonadonna, F.P. and Alberdi, M.T., 1987. Equus stenonis Cocchi as a stratigraphic marker in the Neogene-Quaternary of the western Mediterranean basin: Consequence on Galerian-Villafranchian chronostratigraphy. Quaternary Science Review, v. 6, p. 55–66.Google Scholar
  23. Bonifay, M.F., 1973. Principaux gisements paléontologiques français du Pléistocène moyen: Essai de classification. Le Quaternaire. 9e. Congrès International INQUA, Christchurch 1973, p. 41–49.Google Scholar
  24. Borselli, V., De Giuli, C., Ficcarelli, G., and Mazzini, M.,1980. Casa Frata: Una località fossilifera del Villafranchiano Superiore presso Terranova Bracciolini (Arezzo) nel Valdarno Superiore. Bollettino della Society Paleontologica Italiana, v. 19, p. 254–258.Google Scholar
  25. Bout, P., 1972. Absoljutnyj vozrast vulkanogennykh formazii Overni i Vele i khronologija chetvertichnoj fauny mlekopytajushikh Evropy, in “Geologija i Fauna nizhnego i srednego Plejstozena Evropy.” Akademija Nauk SSSR, Geological Institute, Commission for Quaternary Research, p. 7–24.Google Scholar
  26. Couthures, J. and Pastre, J.F., 1982. Contribution à la chronostratigraphie du Villafranchien: l’Auvergne et le Velay (France). Une série de référence du PlioPléistocène européen. Colloque “Le Villafranchien Méditerranéen,” Lille 1982, p. 179–185.Google Scholar
  27. Dalquest, W.W., 1987. Astrohippus and the origin of Blancan and Pleistocene horses. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 116, 24 p.Google Scholar
  28. David, A.I. and Shushpanov, K.I., 1972. Ostatki mlekopytajushikh iz neogenovikh otlozhenij Modavii. Pozvonochnye Neogena i Pleistozena Moldavii. Akademija Nauk Moldayskogo SSR, Kishnev, p. 3–18, 6 pls.Google Scholar
  29. Davis, S.J.M., 1987. The Archaeology of Animals. Batsford, London, 224 p.Google Scholar
  30. De Giuli, C., 1972. On the type form of Equus stenonis Cocchi. Palaeontographia Italica, v$168, p. 35–49, pl. 7–17.Google Scholar
  31. De Giuli, C., 1983. Le faune pleistoceniche del Salento. I — La fauna di San Sidero 3. I Quaderni. Museo di Paleontologia di Maglie, v. 1, p. 45–84.Google Scholar
  32. De Giuli, C., 1987. Late Villafranchian faunas of Italy: The Selvella local fauna in the southern Chiana valley — Umbria. Palaeontolographia Italica, v. 74, p. 11–50, 18 pls.Google Scholar
  33. De Giuli, C. and Masini, F., 1987. Late Villafranchian faunas in Italy: The Casa Frata local fauna (Upper Valdarno, Tuscany). Palaeontographia Italica, v. 74, p. 1–9, 2 pls.Google Scholar
  34. Dodonov, A.Y., 1980. Principles of stratigraphic subdivision of the Upper Pliocene to Quaternary deposits of Tadjikistan, in Nikiforova, K.V. and Dodonov, A.Y. (eds.), “Graniza Neogena i Chetvertichnoj Sistemy.” Izdatelstvo Nauka, Moskwa, p. 12–31.Google Scholar
  35. Eisenmann, V., 1981. Etude des dents jugales inférieures des Equus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) actuels et fossiles. Palaeovertebrata, v$110, p. 127–226, pl. 1–4.Google Scholar
  36. Eisenmann, V., Cregut Bonnoure, E., and Moigne, A.M., 1985. Equus mosbachensis et les grands Chevaux de la Canne de l’Arago et de Lunel Viel: Craniologie comparée. Bulletin Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle Paris (4) 7, Sec. C, p. 157–173.Google Scholar
  37. Falconer, H. and Cautley, P.J., 1849. Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis. Smith, Elder, and Co., London, 92 pls.Google Scholar
  38. Gabunia, L.K. and Vekua, A.K., 1981. Terrestrial mammals of the Pliocene and early Pleistocene and the boundary between Neogene and Quaternary in Georgia, USSR. Proceedings, Field Conference on the Neogene-Quatenary Boundary, India 1979. Geological Survey of India, Calcutta, p. 45–48.Google Scholar
  39. Gromova, V., 1947. Istorija Loshadej (roda Equus) v Starom Svete. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta, Akademija Nauk USSR, 17, Vol. 1, 374 p., 8 pls.; vol. 2, 164 p.Google Scholar
  40. Gromova, V., 1960. Opredelitel mlekopytajushikh SSSR po kostjam skeleta. Trudy Komissii po Izuchenju Chetvertichnogo Perioda 16, 115 p.Google Scholar
  41. Gromova, V. and Dubrovo, I.A., 1971. Otrjad Perissodactyla, Neparnopalnye. Semejstvo Equidae Gray 1921, in Nikiforova, K.V. (chief editor), “Pleistocene of Tiraspol.” Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Geological Institute; Academy of Sciences of the Moldavian SSR, Department of Palaeontology and Stratigraphy, Kishinev, p. 108–124.Google Scholar
  42. Heintz, E., 1978. La faune Villafranchienne de la Puebla de Valverde, Teruel, Espagne. Composition qualitative et quantitative. Géologie Méditerranéenne, v. 5, p. 277–280.Google Scholar
  43. Hooijer, D.A., 1949. Observations on a calvarium of Equus sivalensis Falconer, and Cautley from the Siwaliks of Punjab, with craniometrical notes on Recent Equidae. Archieves Néerlandaises de Zoologie, v$18, p. 243–266,,p1. 9.Google Scholar
  44. Lance, J.F., 1950. Paleontologia y Estratigrafia del Plioceno de Yepomera, Estado de Chihuahua. 1 parte: Equidos, excepto Neohipparion. Universidad Nacional Autònoma de Mexico, Boletin 54, vii + 82 p.Google Scholar
  45. Lindsay, E.H., Opdyke, N.D., and Johnson, N.M., 1979. Pliocene dispersal of the horse Equus and late Cenozoic mammalian dispersal events. Nature, v. 287, p. 135–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. MacFadden, B.J., 1984. Astrohippus and Dinohippus from the Yepomera Local Fauna (Hemphillian, Mexico) and implications for the phylogeny of one-toed horses: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 4, p. 273–283.Google Scholar
  47. Marin, M., 1987. Equus stenonis granatensis en el Pleistoceno inferior de Venta Micena (Granada, Espana). Paleontologia i Evolucio, Memoria Especial, v. 1, p. 255–282.Google Scholar
  48. Musil, R., 1969. Die Equiden-Reste aus dem Pleistozân von Süssenborn bei Weimar. Paläontologische Abhandlungen, Abteilung A., v. 3, p. 616–666, pl. 37–45.Google Scholar
  49. Musil, R., 1972. Die Pferdefunde der Lokalität Stranskà Skàla. Studia Musei Moraviae — Anthropos — Stranskà Skàla I, 1910–1945, p. 185–192, 2 tab.Google Scholar
  50. Nobis, G., 1971. Vom Wildpferd zum Hauspferd. Fundamenta (B) 6, 96 p., 6 pls., 58 figs., 126 tab. Köln-Berlin.Google Scholar
  51. Opdyke, N.D., Lindsay, E.H., Johnson, G.D., Tahirkeli, R.A.K., and Mirza, M.A., 1979. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and vertebrate palaeontology of the Upper Siwalik subgroup of northern Pakistan. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 27, p. 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Prat, F., 1968. Recherches sur les Equidés pléistocènes en France. Thèse, Université de Bordeaux, Faculté des Sciences, 4 vols.Google Scholar
  53. Prat, F., 1980. Les Equidés Villafranchiens de France — Genre Equus. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Régional de Publication de Bordeaux-Cahiers du Quaternaire No. 2, 291 p.Google Scholar
  54. Privat Defaus, J., 1985. The Villafranchian Equines from the Upper Valdarno. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, v. 91, p. 519–536.Google Scholar
  55. Quinn, J.H., 1955. Miocene Equidae of the Texas Gulf Plain. University of Texas Publications, No. 5516, p. 1–102, 14 pls.Google Scholar
  56. Quinn, J.H., 1957. Pleistocene Equidae of Texas. Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigation No. 33, 51 p., 7 pls.Google Scholar
  57. Ruiz Bustos, A., 1976. Estudio sistemàtico y ecològico sobre la Fauna del Pleistoceno Medio en las Depresiones granadinas. El yacimiento de Cullar de Baza I. Tesis Doctoral, Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias, Trabajos y Monografias del Departamento de Zoologia, No. 1.Google Scholar
  58. Samson, P., 1975. Les Equidés fossiles de Roumanie. Geologica Romana, v. 14, p. 165–352, 20 pls.Google Scholar
  59. Sharapov, Sh., 1986. Kuruksajskij Kompleks pozdnepliozenowikh mlekopytajushikh Afgano-Tadjikiskoj depressii. Akademija Nauk Tadjikiskoj SSR, Institut Zoologii i Parazitologii, 270 p.Google Scholar
  60. Skinner, M.T., 1972. Order Perissodactyla, in Skinner, M.F. and Hibbard, C.W. (eds.), “Pleistocene Preglacial and Glacial Rocks and Faunas of North Central Nebraska.” Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 148, p. 1–148.Google Scholar
  61. Stehlin, H.G. and Graziosi, P., 1935. Ricerche sugli Asinidi fossili d’Europa. Mémoires de la Societé Paléontologique Suisse 54, Mém. 3, 73 p., 10 pls.Google Scholar
  62. Telegin, D.Y., 1986. Dereivka — A settlement and cemetery of the Copper Age Horse Keepers in the middle Dnepr. BAR International Series 287, vi + 186 p. Oxford.Google Scholar
  63. Vekua, A., 1987. The lower Pleistocene mammalian fauna of Akhalkalaki (southern Georgia, USSR). Palaeontographia Italica, v. 74, p. 63–96, 12 pls.Google Scholar
  64. Viret, J., 1954. Le loess à bancs durcis de Saint Vanier (Drôme) et sa faune de mammifères Villafranchiens. Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d’Historie Naturelle de Lyon, v$14, p. 1–100, pl. 1–33.Google Scholar
  65. Von Reichenau, W., 1915. Beiträge zur näheren Kenntniss fossiler Pferde aus deutschem Pleistozän, insbesondere über die Entwicklung und die Abkaustadien des Gebisses vom Hochterrassenpferd (Equus mosbachensis V.R.). Abhandlungen der grossherzoglich Hessischen geologischen Landesanstalt zu Darmstadt 7, Heft 1, 155 p., 14 pls.Google Scholar
  66. West, R.G., 1980. The Pre-Glacial Pleistocene of the Norfolk and Suffolk Coasts. Cambridge University Press, 203 p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Azzaroli
    • 1
  1. 1.Museo di Geologia e PaleontologiaUniversità di FirenzeFirenzeItalia

Personalised recommendations