The “Proboscidean Datum Event:” How Many Proboscideans and How Many Events?

Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 180)


The expression “Proboscidean Datum Event” has been coined by Madden and Van Couvering (1976) to name the major dispersal event which concerned mammalian faunas and which was known to have occurred in the early Miocene from Africa toward Eurasia.


Sister Group Middle Miocene Mammalian Fauna Large Foraminifera Miocene Locality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, C.G., Gentry, A.W., and Whybrow, P.J., 1983. Dating the terminal tethyan event. Utrecht Microp. Bull., v. 30, p. 273–298.Google Scholar
  2. Aguilar, J.-P., 1982. Biozonation du Miocène d’Europe occidentale a l’aide des Rongeurs et corrélations avec l’échelle stratigraphique marine. C. R. Acad. Sc., Paris, t. 294, sér. 2, p. 49–54.Google Scholar
  3. Antunes, M.T., Ginsburg, L., Torquato, J.R., and Ubaldo, M.L., 1973. Age des couches à Mammifères de la basse vallée du Tage (Portugal) et de la Loire moyenne (France). C. R. Acad. Sc., Paris, t. 277, sér. D, p. 2313–2316.Google Scholar
  4. Barry, J.C., Johnson, N.M., Raza, S.M., and Jacobs, L.L., 1985. Neogene mammalian faunal change in Southern Asia: Correlations with climate, tectonic, and eustatic events. Geology, v. 13, p. 637–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baudelot, S. and Crouzel, F., 1976. Insectivore et rongeur lagomorphe à Navère (Lectoure), Burdigalien inférieur du Gers. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse, v. 112, p. 47–52.Google Scholar
  6. Beer, G. de, 1964. Atlas of Evolution. Nelson, London.Google Scholar
  7. Bernor, R., 1983. Geochronology and zoogeographic relationships of Miocene Hominoidea, in Ciochon, R.L. and Corruccini, R.S. (eds.), “New Interpretation of Ape and Human Ancestry.” Plenum Press, New York, p. 21–64.Google Scholar
  8. Bernor, R., Brunet, M., Ginsburg, L., Mein, P., Pickford, M., Rögl, F., Sen, S., Steininger, F., and Thomas, H., 1987. A consideration of some major topics concerning Old World Miocene Mammalian chronology, migrations and paleo-geography. Geobios, v. 20, p. 431–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borissiak, A. and Beliaeva, L.I., 1928. Trilophodon (Serridentinus?) inopinatus n.sp. from the Djilancik Beds of the Turgai Region. Bull. Acad. Sc. U.R.S.S., Cl. Sc. Phys.-Math., 1928, p. 241–252.Google Scholar
  10. Bown, T.M. and Simons, E.L., 1984. First record of marsupials (Metatheria: Polyprotodonta) from Oligocene in Africa. Nature, v. 308, p. 447–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chakravarti, D.K., 1957. A geological, palaeontological and phylogenetic study of the Elephantoidea of India, Pakistan and Burma: Pt. 1. Gomphotheriidae. Journal Palaeontological Society of India, v. 2, p. 83–94.Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, C. Forster, 1922. Miocene Proboscidia from Baluchistan. Proceedings, Zoological Society of London, v. 42, p. 602–626.Google Scholar
  13. Coryndon, S.C. and Savage, R.J.G., 1973. The origin and affinities of African mammal faunas, in Hugues, N.F. (ed.), “Organisms and Continents through Time.” Sp. Papers Paleont., London, v. 12, p. 121–135.Google Scholar
  14. Drooger, C.W., 1979. Marine connections of the Neogene Mediterranean, deduced from the evolution and distribution of larger foraminifera. Ann. Géol. Pays Hellén., t.h.s., v. 1, p. 361–369.Google Scholar
  15. Fahlbusch, V., 1976. Report on the International Symposium on Mammalian Stratigraphy of the European Tertiary. Newsl. Stratigr., v. 5, p. 160–167.Google Scholar
  16. Flynn, L.J., Jacobs, L.L., and Cheema, I.U., 1986. Baluchimyinae, a new ctenodactyloid rodent subfamily from the Miocene of Baluchistan. American Museum Novitates, no. 2841, p. 1–25.Google Scholar
  17. Fourtau, R., 1920. Contribution, è l’étude des vertébrés miocènes de l’Egypte. Sur. Dept. Govt. Press, Cairo.Google Scholar
  18. Gabunia, L.K., 1979. Biostratigraphic correlations between the Neogene land mammal faunas of the East and Central Paratethys. Ann. Géol. Pays Hellén., t.h.s., v. 1, p. 413–423.Google Scholar
  19. Gaziry, A.W., 1976. Jungtertiare Mastodonten aus Anatolien (Türkey). Geol. Jb., Bd. B 22, p. 1–109.Google Scholar
  20. Gentry, A.W., 1987. Mastodons from the Miocene of Saudi Arabia. Bulletin British Museum of Natural History (Geol.), v. 41, p. 395–407.Google Scholar
  21. Ginsburg, L., 1974. Les faunes de Mammifères burdigaliens et vindoboniens des bassins de la Loire et de la Garonne, in “V Congrès du Néogène Méditerranéen. ” Mém. B.R.G.M. 78, v. 1, p. 153–167.Google Scholar
  22. Ginsburg, L., 1979. Les migrations de mammifères carnassiers (créodontes + carnivores) et le problème des relations intercontinentales entre l’Europe et l’Afrique au Miocène inférieur. Ann. Géol. Pays Hellén., t.h.s., v. 1, p. 461–466.Google Scholar
  23. Hamor, G. and Ravasz-Baranyai, L., 1979. K/Ar dating of Miocene pyroclastic rocks in Hungary. Ann. Géol. Pays Hellén., t.h.s., v. 2, p. 491–500.Google Scholar
  24. Harris, J.M., 1978. Deinotherioidea and Barytherioidea, in Maglio, V.J. and Cooke, H.B.S. (eds.), “Evolution of African Mammals.” Harvard University Press, Cambridge, p. 315–332.Google Scholar
  25. Hartenberger, J.-L., Martinez, C., and Bensaid, A., 1985. Découverte de Mammifères d’âge Eocène inférieur en Tunisie Centrale. C. R. Acad. Sc., Paris, t. 301, sér. II, no. 9, p. 649–652.Google Scholar
  26. Johnson, N.M., Stix, J., Tauxe, L., Cerveny, P.F., and Tahirkheli, R.A.K., 1985. Paleomagnetic chronology, fluvial process, and tectonic implications of the Siwalik deposits near Chinji Village, Pakistan. Journal of Geology, v. 93, p. 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kordos, L., 1983. Footprints in lower Miocene sandstone at Ipolytarnoc, N. Hungary. Geol. Hungarica, ser. Paleont., v. 44–46, p. 260–415.Google Scholar
  28. Leakey, R.E.F. and Walker, A., 1985. New higher primates from the early Miocene of Buluk, Kenya. Nature, v. 318, p. 173–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Madden, C.T., and Van Couvering, J.A., 1976. The Proboscidean Datum Event: Early Micoene migration from Africa. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, p. 992.Google Scholar
  30. Maglio, V.J., 1969. A shovel-tusked gomphothere from the Miocene of Kenya. Breviora, no. 310, p. 1–10.Google Scholar
  31. Mahboubi, M., Ameur, R., Crochet, J.Y., and Jaeger, J.J., 1986. El Kohol (Saharan Atlas, Algeria): A new Eocene mammal locality in northwestern Africa. Paleontographica, Bd. A-192, p. 15–49.Google Scholar
  32. Matsumoto, H., 1927. On two new mastodonts and an archetypal stegodon of Japan. Sci. Rep. Tôhoku Imp. Univ. Sendai, Geol., (2), v. 10, p. 1–11.Google Scholar
  33. McKenna, M.C. and Manning, E., 1977. Affinities and palaeobiogeographic significance of the Mongolian genus Phenacolophus. Géobios, Mém. Sp. 1, p. 61–85.Google Scholar
  34. Mein, P., 1975. Résultat du groupe de travail des Vertébrés, in “Rapport of the R.C.M.N.S. Working Groups (1971–1975). ” Bratislava, p. 78–81.Google Scholar
  35. Mein, P., 1979. Rapport d’activité du groupe de travail des Vertébrés. Mise à jour de la biostratigraphie du Néogène basée sur les mammifères. Ann. Géol. Pays Hellén., t.h.s., v. 3, p. 1367–1372.Google Scholar
  36. Mein, P., 1981. Mammal zonations: Introduction. Ann. Géol. Pays Hellén., t.h.s., v. 4, p. 83–88.Google Scholar
  37. Osborn, H.F., 1936. Proboscidea, Vol. I. American Museum Press, New York. Pickford, M., 1981. Preliminary Miocene mammalian biostratigraphy for western Kenya. J. Hum. Evol., v. 10, p. 73–97.Google Scholar
  38. Pickford, M., 1987. Révision des Suiformes (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) de Bugti (Pakistan). Annls. Paléont., v. 73, 4, p. 289–350.Google Scholar
  39. Pickford, M. and Tassy, P., 1980. A new species of Zygolophodon (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from the Miocene localities of Meswa Bridge and Moroto (East Africa). N. Jb. Geol. Pal’âont. Mh., 1980, Bd. 4, p. 235–251.Google Scholar
  40. Pickford, M., Senut, B., Hadoto, D., Musisi, J., and Kariira, C., 1986. Découvertes récentes dans les sites miocènes de Moroto (Ouganda Oriental). C. R. Acad. Sc., Paris, t. 302, sér. II, no. 9, p. 681–686.Google Scholar
  41. Pilgrim, G., 1908. The Tertiary and post-Tertiary freshwater deposits of Baluchistan and Sind with notices of new vertebrates. Rec. Geol. Surv. India, v. 37, 2, p. 139–166.Google Scholar
  42. Pilgrim, G., 1912. The vertebrate fauna of the Gaj Series in the Bugti Hills and the Punjab. Mem. Geol. Surv. India, Pal. Indica, v. 4, 2, ii + 83 p.Google Scholar
  43. Radulesco, C., Iliesco, G., and Iliesco, M., 1976. Un embrithopode nouveau (Mammalia) dans le Paléogène de la dépression de Hateg (Roumanie) et la géologie de la région. N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh., Bd. 11, p. 690–698.Google Scholar
  44. Raza, S.M. and Meyer, G.E., 1984. Early Miocene geology and paleontology of the Bugti Hills, Pakistan. Mein. Geol. Surv. Pakistan, v. 11, p. 43–63.Google Scholar
  45. Raza, S.M., Barry, J.C., Meyer, G.E., and Martin, L., 1984. Preliminary report on the geology and vertebrate fauna of the Miocene Manchar Formation, Sind, Pakistan. J. Vert. Pal., v. 4, p. 584–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rög1, F. and Steininger, F.F., 1983. Vom Zerfall der Tethys zu Mediterran und Paratethys. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, Bd. 85-A, p. 135–163.Google Scholar
  47. Sarwar, M., 1977. Taxonomy and distribution of the Siwalik Proboscidea. Bull. Dept. Zool. Univ. Punjab (N. S.), v. 10, p. 1–172.Google Scholar
  48. Schlesinger, G., 1917. Die Mastodonten des K.K. naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, Denkschr. K.K. Naturhist. Hofm., 1, Geol.-Paraont., Bd. 1, p. 1–230.Google Scholar
  49. Sen, S. and Heintz, E., 1979. Palaeomasia kansui Ozansoy 1966, embrithopode (Mammalia) de l’Eocène d’Anatolie. Amis. Paléont., v. 65, p. 73–91.Google Scholar
  50. Simons, E.L. and Bown, T.M., 1985. Afrotarsius chatrathi, first tarsiiform primate (?Tarsiidae) from Africa. Nature, v. 313, p. 475–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Takai, F., 1954. An addition to the Mammalian fauna of the Japanese Miocene. Journ. Fac. Sc., Univ. Tokyo, sect. II, v. 9, p. 331–335.Google Scholar
  52. Tassy, P., 1977. Découverte de Zygolophodon turicensis (Schinz) (Proboscidea, Mammalia) au lieu-dit Malartic h Simorre, Gers (Vindobonien moyen); implications paléoécologiques et biostratigraphiques. Géobios, v. 10, p. 655–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tassy, P., 1982. Les principales dichotomies dans l’histoire des Proboscidea (Mammalia): Une approche phylogénétique, in “Phylogénie et Paléobiogéographie.” Géobios, Mém. Sp. 6, p. 225–245.Google Scholar
  54. Tassy, P., 1983. Les Elephantoidea miocènes du Plateau du Potwar, Groupe de Siwalik, Pakistan. Annls. Paléont., v. 69, p. 99–136, 235–298, 317–354.Google Scholar
  55. Tassy, P., 1984. Le mastodonte à dents étroites, le grade trilophodonte et la radiation initiale des Amebelodontidea, in Buffetaut, E., Mazin, J.-M., and Salmon, E. (eds.), “Actes du Symposium Paléontologique G. Cuvier.” Montbéliard, p. 459–473.Google Scholar
  56. Tassy, P., 1985a. Miocene elephantoids of circum-Indian Ocean region and easttethysian relationships. Abstract, Fort Burgwin Conference on Neogene Geological and Biotic Evolution of the Circum-Indian Ocean Region, Taos, 1 p.Google Scholar
  57. Tassy, P., 1985b. La place des mastodontes miocènes de l’Ancien Monde dans la phylogénie des Proboscidea (Mammalia): Hypothèses et conjectures. Thèse doct. es. sc., Mém. Sc. Terre, Univ. Curie., Paris, no. 85–34, xii + 862 p.Google Scholar
  58. Tassy, P., 1986. Nouveaux Elephantoidea (Mammalia) dans le Miocène du Kenya. Cahiers de Paléontologie, Ed. du C.N.R.S., Paris.Google Scholar
  59. Tassy, P., 1988. Le statut systématique de l’espèce Hemimastodon crepusculi (Pilgrim): L’éternel problème de l’homologie et de la convergence. Annls. Paléont., v. 74, in press.Google Scholar
  60. Tassy, P. and Pickford, M., 1983. Un nouveau mastodonte zygolophodonte (Proboscidea, Mammalia) dans le Miocène inférieur d’Afrique Orientale: Systématique et paléoenvironnement. Géobios, v. 16, p. 53–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tassy, P. and Shoshani, J., 1988. The Tethytheria: Elephants and their relatives, in Benton, M.J. (ed.), “The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods.” Syst. Ass. Sp. Vol., London, v. 35 B, p. 283–315.Google Scholar
  62. Tassy, P. and Thomas, H., 1988. Les faunes de mammifères miocènes du Neguev (Israel) et d’Arabie Saoudite peuvent-elles dater la fermeture orientale de la Téthys?. Abst. Coll. ASP Evolution: 1984–1988, bilan et perspectives, CNRS, Paris, p. 49.Google Scholar
  63. Tchernov, E., Ginsburg, L., Tassy, P., and Goldsmith, N.F., 1987. Miocene mammals of the Negev (Israel). J. Vert. Paleont., v. 7, p. 284–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thomas, H., 1985. The early and middle Miocene land connection of the Afro-Arabian Plate and Asia: A major event for hominoid dispersal?, in Delson, E. (ed.), “Ancestors: The Hard Evidence.” Alan R. Liss Inc., New York, p. 42–50.Google Scholar
  65. Thomas, H., Sen, S., Khan, M., Battail, B., and Ligabue, G., 1982. The lower Miocene fauna of Al-Sarrar (Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia). Atlal, v. 5, p. 109–136.Google Scholar
  66. Tobien, H., 1973. On the evolution of Mastodonts (Proboscidea, Mammalia). Pt. I: The bunodont trilophodont groups. Notizbl. hess. L-Amt. Bodenforsch., Bd. 101, p. 202–276.Google Scholar
  67. Tobien, H., 1980. Note on the skull and mandible of a new Choerolophodont Mastodont (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from the middle Miocene of Chios (Aegean Sea, Greece), in Jacobs, L.L. (ed.), “Aspects of Vertebrate History.” Museum of Northern Arizona Press, Flagstaff, p. 299–307.Google Scholar
  68. Van Couvering, J.A. and Berggren, W.A., 1977. Biostratigraphical basis of the Neogene Time Scale, in Hagel, J.E. and Kauffman, E.H. (eds.), “Concepts in Biostratigraphy.” Paleont. Soc., Lawrence, p. 283–306.Google Scholar
  69. Wells, N.E. and Gingerich, P.D., 1983. Review of Eocene Anthracobunidae (Mammalia, Proboscidea) with a new genus and species, Jozaria palustris, from the Kuldana Formation of Kohat (Pakistan). Contr. Mus. Paleont. Univ. Michigan, v. 26, p. 117–131.Google Scholar
  70. West, R.M., 1980. Middle Eocene land mammal assemblage with Tethyan affinities, Ganda Kas region, Pakistan. J. Paleont., v. 54, p. 508–535.Google Scholar
  71. Whybrow, P.J., 1987. Summary, in “Miocene Geology and Palaeontology of Ad Dabtiyah, Saudi Arabia. ” Bulletin British Museum of Natural History (Geol.), v. 41, p. 367–369.Google Scholar
  72. Wilkinson, A., 1976. The lower Miocene Suidae of Africa, in Savage, R.J.G. and Coryndon, S.C. (eds.), “Fossil Vertebrates of Africa, Vol. 4.” Academic Press, London, p. 173–282.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire de Paléontologie des Vertébrés et de Paléontologie HumaineUniversité P. & M. CurieParis Cedex 05France

Personalised recommendations