Topology of Condensed Matter
The branches once called solid-state physics and now called condensed-state physics cover, for example, the crystals, para- and ferromagnets. However, materials can, given a change of conditions (pressure, temperature), transform into a completely different state of matter (e.g., liquid, plasma, etc.). Therefore, another terminology which more accurately reflects their properties is now being adopted. A more detailed classification separates physical systems into ordered and disordered media. The former includes liquid crystals, superfluid liquids, and other media naturally described by an order parameter while disordered systems constitute a comparatively new class. They include spin glasses, amorphous bodies, polymers, etc.
KeywordsLiquid Crystal Homotopy Class Topological Charge Line Singularity Klein Surface
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