Advertisement

Ecological Factors and their Biogeographic Consequences in the Mediterranean Ecosystems

  • Michele Sara
Chapter
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 8)

Abstract

The biogeographical research of today is mainly concerned with the explaining of the pattern of species and ecosystem distribution from a causal point of view. Unfortunately this effort involves difficult questions to which the present development of biogeography does not give precise answers. Recently three hypotheses have been advanced concerning terrestrial and freshwater biogeography; they are known as the vicariance, the dispersal and the ecological models, according to the set of factors that is considered more important in determining the distribution of plants and animals (Endler, 1982). The vicariance and dispersal hypotheses tend to emphasize especially the historical factors, whereas the ecological hypothesis reflects the present ones. However it seems clear that a synthesis is needed which may incorporate these competing models and that in every case ecology plays a major role together with dispersal and vicariance (Davis, 1982). Consequently it appears very useful also for marine biogeographical research to adopt a plural approach which should take into consideration the different sets of factors and their interrelationships. As other branches of biology, biogeography is directly concerned with evolutionary problems. When we analyze the role of ecological factors we cannot consider only the present one, but also that which they played in geological time, influencing the immigration and extinction of species and the evolutionary rates of taxa and ecosystems.

Keywords

Ecological Factor Historical Factor Decapod Crustacean Interglacial Period Mediterranean Ecosystem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Battaglia, B., 1970, Cultivation of marine copepods for genetic and evolutionary research, Helgol. wiss. Meer., 20:385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Briggs, J.C., 1974, “Marine zoogeography,” McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Caspers, H., 1957, Black Sea and Sea of Azoy, in: “Treatise on marine ecology and paleoecology,” Vol. I Ecology, J.W. Hedgpeth, ed., Geol.Soc. America, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Davis, G.M., 1982, Historical and ecological factors in the evolution adaptive radiation and biogeography of freshwater Mollusks, Am. Zool., 22:375.Google Scholar
  5. Endler, J.A., 1982, Problems in distinguishing historical from ecological factors in biogeography, Am. Zool., 22:441.Google Scholar
  6. Fredj, G., 1974, Stockage et exploitation des données en écologie marine. C. Considérations biogéographiques sur le peuplement benthique de la Méditerranée, Mem. Inst. océan. Monaco, 7:1.Google Scholar
  7. Gessner, F., 1970, Temperature: plants. in: “Marine Ecology,” Vol. I, Environmental factors, O. Kinne, ed., Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  8. Gessner, F., and Schramm, W., 1971, Salinity — Plants. in: “Marine Ecology,” Vol. I, Environmental Factors, O. Kinne, ed., Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  9. Gilat, E., 1964, The macrobenthonic invertebrate communities on the Mediterranean continental shelf of Israel, Bull. Inst. Océanogr. Monaco, 62:1.Google Scholar
  10. Golikov, A.N. and Scarlato, O.A., 1967, Ecology of bottom biocoenoses in the Possyet Bay (the Sea of Japan) and the peculiarities of their distribution in connection with physical and chemical conditions of the habitat, Helgol. wiss. Meer., 15:193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hardy, A.C., 1956, Plankton ecology and the hypothesis of animal exclusion, Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., 148:64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kinne, O., 1970, Temperature: animals. Invertebrates. in: “Marine Ecology,” Vol. I. Environmental factors, O. Kinne, ed., Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  13. Klausewitz, W., 1973, New aspects of the palaeogeography of the Mediterranean ichthyofauna, Icthyologia (Belgrad), 5:74.Google Scholar
  14. Kosswig, C., 1956, Beitrag zur Faunengeschichte des Mittelmeers, Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli, 28:78.Google Scholar
  15. Levi, C., 1957, Spongiaires des cotes d’Israel, Bull. Res. Coun. Israel, 6B:201.Google Scholar
  16. Mars, P., 1963, Les faunes et la stratigraphie du Quaternaire méditerranéen, Rec. Trav. St. Mar. Endoume, 28:61.Google Scholar
  17. Mars, P. and Picard, J., 1958, Note sur les gisements sous-marins a faune celtique en Méditerranée, Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Médit., 15:325.Google Scholar
  18. Pérès, J.M., 1967, The mediterranean benthos, Oceanogr. mar. biol. Ann. Rev., 5:449. Peres, J.M. and Picard, J., 1964, Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Méditerranée, Rec. Trav. St. Mar. Endoume, 47:1.Google Scholar
  19. Pfannenstiel, M., 1960, Erläuterungen zu den bathymetrischen Karten des ëstlichen Mittelmeeres, Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco, 1192:15.Google Scholar
  20. Por, F.D., 1971, One hundred years of Suez Canal. A century of Lessepsian migration: retrospect and viewpoints. Syst. Zool., 20:138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Por, F.D., 1978, “Lessepsian migration,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Por, F.D., 1981, The Lessepsian biogeographic province of the eastern Mediterranean, in: “Journ. Etud. syst. ëvol.,” CIESM, Cagliari.Google Scholar
  23. Riedl, R., 1971, Water movement: general introduction. in: “Marine Ecology,” Vol. I, Environmental factors, O. Kine, ed., Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  24. Ruggieri, G., 1967, The miocène and later evolution of the Mediterranean Sea, in: “Aspects of Tethyan biogeography,” C.G. Adams, and D.V. Ages, eds., Syst. Ass. Publ., n. 7, London.Google Scholar
  25. Sara, M., 1967, La zoogeografia marina e il litorale pugliese, Arch. Bot. Biogeogr. It., 43:327.Google Scholar
  26. Schopf, T.J.M., 1981, Evidence from findings of molecular biology with regard to the rapidity of genomic change: implications for species durations, in: “Paleobotany, Paleoecology and Evolution,” Vol. I, K.J. Niklas, ed., Praeger Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  27. Stephen, A.C., 1958, The sipunculids of Haifa Bay and neighbourhood, Bull. Res. Coun. Israel, 7B: 129.Google Scholar
  28. Tchukhtchin, V.D., 1964, Trudy Sevastopol Biol. Stn, 16:215.Google Scholar
  29. Tortonese, E., 1951, I caratteri biologici del Mediterraneo orientale e i problemi relativi, Arch. Zool. Ital., Suppl., 7:205.Google Scholar
  30. Tortonese, E., This book, Distribution and ecology of endemic elements in the Mediterranean fauna (fishes and echinoderms).Google Scholar
  31. Udvardy, M.D.F., 1969, “Dynamic zoogeography with special reference to land animals,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Vacelet, J., 1981, Les affinités du peuplement de spongiaires de la Mediterrannée, Journ. Etud. syst. evol., CIESM, Cagliari: 29.Google Scholar
  33. Valentine, J.W., 1967, The influence of climatic fluctuations on species diversity within the Tethyan provincial system, in; “Aspects of Tethyan biogeography,” C.G. Adams, and D.V. Ager, eds., Syst. Ass. Publ. n. 7, London.Google Scholar
  34. Vatova, A., 1935, The fishery grounds near Alexandria. II. A bottom sample taken at Alexandria, Notes Mem. Fish. Res. Dir. Cairo, 9:1.Google Scholar
  35. Vernberg, F.J., 1971, Dissolved gas. Animals, in: “Marine Ecology,” Vol. I, Environmental factors, O. Kinne, ed., Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  36. Zaccaria, M., 1968, Studi geologici sulle isole del Dodecaneso (Mare Egeo); VIII. Fauna Calabrian dell’isola di Rodi, Riv.Ital. Paleont., 74:275.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Sara
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di ZoologiaUniversità di GenovaGenovaItaly

Personalised recommendations