Spatial Heterogeneity in Closed Basins

  • Peter J. Richerson
  • Thomas M. Powell
  • Mark R. Leigh-Abbott
  • John A. Coil
Chapter
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 3)

Abstract

Everything varies in space and time. This truism appears to be as accurate for aquatic habitats as it is for terrestrial habitats. Whether one measures physical parameters, the concentrations of chemical species, or numbers of organisms, all are spatially and temporally heterogeneous.

Keywords

Biomass Phosphorus Chlorophyll Phytoplankton Coherence 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bainbridge, R., 1957: The size, shape and density of marine phyto-plankton concentrations. Cambridge Phil. Soc, 32, 91–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernhard, M. and L. Rampi, 1965: Horizontal microdistribution in the Ligurian Sea, Proc. Mar. Biol. S ymp. Goteborg, 5, 13–24.Google Scholar
  3. Blanton, J. O., 1974: Some characteristics of nearshore currents along the northshore of Lake Ontario. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 4, 415–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boyce, F. M., 1974: Some aspects of Great Lakes physics of importance to biological and chemical processes, J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 31, 689–730.Google Scholar
  5. Caldwell, D. R., J. M. Brubaker and V. T. Neal, 1978: Thermal microstructure on a lake slope. Limnol. Oceanogr., 23, 372–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cassie, R. M., 1959: Micro-distribution of plankton. N.Z.J. Sci., 2, 398–409.Google Scholar
  7. Csanady, G. T., 1975: Hydrodynamics of large lakes. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 7, 357–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Denman, K. L., 1977: Short term variability in vertical Chlorophyll structure. Limnol. Oceanogr., 22, 434–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Denman, K. L. and T. Platt, 1975: Coherences in the horizontal distributions of phytoplankton and temperature in the upper ocean. Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liege, 6e serie, 7, 19–30.Google Scholar
  10. Fee, E. J., 1976: The vertical and seasonal distribution of chloro-phyll in lakes of the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario: implications for primary production estimates. Limnol. Oceanogr., 21, 767–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goldman, C. R., G. Moshiri and E. deAmezaga, 1972: Synoptic study of accelerated eutrophication in Lake Tahoe, a subalpine lake. In International Symposium on Water Pollution Control in Cold Climates, M. Murphy and D. Nyquist (eds.), pp. 1-21.Google Scholar
  12. Harris, G. P. and R.E.H. Smith, 1977: Observations of small-scale spatial patterns in phytoplankton populations. Limnol. Oceanogr., 22, 887–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haury, L. R., 1973: Sampling bias of a Longhurst-Hardy plankton recorder. Limnol. Oceanogr., 18, 500–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Home, A. J., J. R. Sandusky and C.J.W. Carmiggelt, 1978: Nitrogen fixation in Clear Lake, California. III: Super synoptic studies on the spring A phanizomenon bloom. Limnol. Oceanogr., in press.Google Scholar
  15. Home, A. J. and R. C. Wrigley, 1975: The use of remote sensing to detect how wind influences planktonic blue-green algal distribution. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 19, 789–791.Google Scholar
  16. Hulburt, E. M., 1977: Coexistence, equilibrium, and nutrient sharing among phytoplankton species in the Gulf of Maine. Amer. Natur., 111, 967–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hutchinson, G. E., 1957: A treatise on limnology. Vol. I, J. Wiley, N.Y., 1017 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Hutchinson, G. E., 1961: The paradox of the plankton. Amer. Natur., 95, 137–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kierstead, H. and L. B. Slobodkin, 1953: The size of water masses containing plankton blooms. J. Mar. Res., 12, 141–147.Google Scholar
  20. Leigh-Abbott, M. R., J. A. Coil, T. M. Powell and P. J. Richerson, 1978: Effects of a coastal front on the distribution of Chlorophyll in Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada. J. Geophys. Res., (Oceans and Atmospheres), in press.Google Scholar
  21. Levin, S. A., 1976: Population dynamic models in heterogeneous environments. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 7, 287–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lucas, C. E., 1941: Continuous plankton records; phytoplankton in the North Sea, 1938–39, Part I, Diatoms. Hull. Bull. Mar. Ecol., 2, 19–46.Google Scholar
  23. Lund, J.W.E., 1964: Primary production and periodicity of phytoplankton. Edgar Baldi Mem. Lect., Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 15, 37–56.Google Scholar
  24. Margalef, R., 1969: Estudios sobre la distribucion a pequena escala del fitoplankton marino. Mem. Real Acoda Cienc. Artes Barcelona, 40C(1), 3–22.Google Scholar
  25. McAlice, B. J., 1970: Observations on the small-scale distribution of estuarine phytoplankton. Mar. Biol., 7, 100–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mortimer, C. H., 1974: Lake hydrodynamics. Mitt. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 20, 124–197.Google Scholar
  27. Okubo, A., 1976: The criticai size of water masses containing plankton blooms under scale-dependent diffusion. Manuscript.Google Scholar
  28. Pingree, R. D., P. R. Pugh, P. M. Holligan and G. R. Forster, 1975: Summer phytoplankton blooms and red tidal fronts in the approaches to the English Channel. Nature, 258, 672–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Platt, T., 1972a: The feasibility of mapping the Chlorophyll distribution in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada Tech. Rep. 332, 8 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Platt, T., 1972b: Local phytoplankton abundance and turbulence, Deep-Sea Res., 19, 183–187.Google Scholar
  31. Platt, T. and K. L. Denman, 1975: Spectral analysis in ecology. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 6, 189–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Platt, T., L. M. Dickie and R. W. Trites, 1970: Spatial hetero-geneity of phytoplankton in a nearshore environnaient. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 27, 1453–1473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Platt, T. and C. Filion, 1973: Spatial variability of productivity: biomass ratio for phytoplankton in a small marine basin. Limnol. Oceanogr., 18, 743–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Powell, T. M., P. J. Richerson, T. M. Dillon, B. A. Agee, B. J. Dozier, D. A. Godden and L. O. Myrup, 1975: Spatial scales of current speed and phytoplankton biomass fluctuations in Lake Tahoe. Science, 189, 1088–1090.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Richerson, P. J., R. Armstrong and C. R. Goldman, 1970: Contempo-raneous disequilibrium, a new hypothesis to explain the “Paradox of the Plankton.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 67, 1710–1714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Richerson, P. J., B. J. Dozier and B. T. Maeda, 1975: The struct ure of phytoplankton associations in Lake Tahoe (California-Nevada). Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 19, 843–849.Google Scholar
  37. Richerson, P. J., M. Lopez and T. Coon, 1977: The deep Chlorophyll maximum layer of Lake Tahoe. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 20, in press.Google Scholar
  38. Richerson, P. J., C. Widmer and T. Kittel, 1977: The limnology of Lake Titicaca (Peru-Bolivia). Institute of Ecology Publ. 14, University of California, Davis, 78 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Ricker, W. E., 1937: Statistical treatment of sampling processes useful in the enumeration of plankton. Arch. Hydrobiol., 31, 68–84.Google Scholar
  40. Robinson, G. A., 1961: Contributions towards a plankton atlas of the northeastern Atlantic and the North Sea. Part I: Phytoplankton. Bull. Mar. Ecol., 5, 81–89.Google Scholar
  41. Sandusky, J. C. and A. J. Home, 1977: A pattern analysis of Clear Lake phytoplankton. LBL publ. 6302, Lawrence Berkeley Labora-tory, University of California, Berkeley, 39 pp.Google Scholar
  42. Simpson, J. H. and J. D. Woods, 1970: Temperature microstructure in a freshwater thermocline. Nature, 226, 832–834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stavn, R. H., 1971: The horizontal-vertical distribution hypothesis: Langmuir circulations and Daphnia distributions. Limnol. Oceanogr., 16, 453–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Steele, J. H., 1974: Spatial heterogeneity and population stability. Nature, 248, 83–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stull, E. A., E. deAmezaga and C. R. Goldman, 1973: The contribution of individual species of algae to primary productivity of Castle Lake, California. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 18, 1776–1783.Google Scholar
  46. Therriault, J. C., 1977: Studies of the spatial heterogeneity in the phytoplankton of St. Margaret’s Bay, Nova Scotia. Ph.D. Dissertation, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, 89 pp.Google Scholar
  47. Thorpe, S. A., A. J. Hall, C. Taylor and J. Allen, 1977: Billows in Loch Ness. Deep-Sea Res., 24, 371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tilman, D., 1977: Does environmental variability limit the number of coexisting species of algae? or Why aren’t there more coexisting species of algae? Abstract, Am. Soc. Limnol. Oceanogr., Annual Mtg.Google Scholar
  49. Venrick, E. L., 1971: The statistics of subsampling. Limnol. Oceanogr., 16, 811–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Venrick, E. L., 1972: Small scale distributions of oceanic diatoms. Fish. Bull., 70, 363–372.Google Scholar
  51. Walsh, J. J., 1976: Herbivory as a factor in patterns of nutrient utilization in the sea. Limnol. Oceanogr., 21, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wiens, J. A., 1976: Population responses to patchy environments. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 7, 81–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wiens, J. A., 1977: On competition in variable environments. Amer. Sci., 65, 590–597.Google Scholar
  54. Wroblewski, J. S., 1977: Vertically migrating herbivorous plankton-their possible role in the creation of small-scale phytoplankton patchiness in the ocean. In Oceanic Sound Scattering Prediction, N. R. Anderson and B. J. Zahuranec (eds.), pp. 817–847, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Wroblewski, J. S., J. J. O’Brien and T. Platt, 1975: On the physical and biological scales of phytoplankton patchiness in the ocean. Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liege, 6e serie, 7, 43–57.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter J. Richerson
    • 1
  • Thomas M. Powell
    • 1
  • Mark R. Leigh-Abbott
    • 1
  • John A. Coil
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Environmental StudiesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations