Deviant and Normal Social Development

  • Mahin Hassibi
  • Harry BreuerJr.


The child’s adaptation and development of various aspects of his personality are dependent upon the availability of a group of well-tested coping mechanisms and viable strategies provided in the social network. Their need for social survival makes it necessary for parents to help induct the child into the social milieu through encouragement, direct teaching, and even coercion. The innate impetus for socialization compels the child to accept what is offered, learn what is exhibited, and actively select from what is present. Gradually the child’s unique personality is shaped, and a complex psychological being is created. On the other hand, incorporating each new individual into the social network confronts the system with a new challenge. As the social system shapes the child’s personality, it is in turn modified by him. This reciprocal interaction prevents the fossilization of the social network, and assures the guided development of each individual’s psychology.


Down Syndrome Emotional Experience Emotional Expressiveness Inanimate Object Communicative Intent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Blank, M. (1964). The mother’s role in infant development. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 3:89–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Call, J. D. and Marschak, M. (1966). Styles and games in infancy. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 5:193–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dunn, J. (1977). Distress and Comfort. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Emde, R. N., Katz, E. and Thorpe, E. (1978) Emotional expression in infancy: Early deviations in Down’s Syndrome, in M. Lewis and L. A. Rosenblum (Eds.), The Development of Affect. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  5. Escalona, S. (1962). The study of individual differences and the problem of state. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 1:11–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fantz, R. L., and Nevis, S. (1967). Pattern preferences and perceptual-cognitive development in early infancy. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 6:77–108.Google Scholar
  7. Fish, B. (1968). The maturation of arousal and attention in the first month of life. A study of variations in ego development. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 2:253–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kagan, J. (1976). Emergent themes in human development. American Scientist 64:186–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Safrin, R. K. (1964). Differences in visual perception and in visual-motor functioning between psychotic and nonpsychotic children. Journal of Consulting Psychology 28:41–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sameroff, A. J. and Chandler, M. J. (1975). Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casualty, in F. D. Horowitz, E. M. Hetherington, S. Scarr-Salapateck, and J. Siegel (Eds.), Review of Child Development Research, Vol. 4. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Wolff, P. H. (1966). The causes, controls and organization of behavior in the neonate. Psychological Issues. Mong. 17. New York: International University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Wynne, L. (1978). From symptoms to vulnerability and beyond: An overview, in L. Wynne, R. H. Cromwell, and S. Matthysse (Eds.), The Nature of Schizophrenia: New Approaches to Research and Treatment. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahin Hassibi
    • 1
  • Harry BreuerJr.
    • 2
  1. 1.New York Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.New York University Medical SchoolNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations