Issues in the Assessment of Attitudes in Pre- and Marginally Literate Cultures
It has been proposed (e.g., Davidson & Thomson, 1980: Irvine & Carroll, 1980) that the reliability and validity of direct attitude scaling techniques may be problematic for a given culture, especially those that are pre- or marginally literate. Numerical measurement procedures such as direct ratio scaling or numerically anchored category scales demand at least some proficiency with the mathematical system assumed in the technique. Verbally anchored category scales and Likert-type formats not only assume that individuals can conceptualize stimuli on a priori specified dimensions, but also can be invalidated by inappropriate scale anchors.
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