Issues in the Assessment of Attitudes in Pre- and Marginally Literate Cultures
It has been proposed (e.g., Davidson & Thomson, 1980: Irvine & Carroll, 1980) that the reliability and validity of direct attitude scaling techniques may be problematic for a given culture, especially those that are pre- or marginally literate. Numerical measurement procedures such as direct ratio scaling or numerically anchored category scales demand at least some proficiency with the mathematical system assumed in the technique. Verbally anchored category scales and Likert-type formats not only assume that individuals can conceptualize stimuli on a priori specified dimensions, but also can be invalidated by inappropriate scale anchors.
KeywordsDirect Scaling Input Preference Small Scale Trial Transitive Subject Coordinate Matrice
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Brislin, R. Translation and content analysis of oral and written materials. In H. C. Triandis and J. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology: Methodology, Vol. 2. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1980, pp. 389–44.Google Scholar
- Coombs, C. A Theory of Data. New York: John Wiley, 1964.Google Scholar
- David, H. The Method of Paired Comparisons. New York: Hafner, 1963.Google Scholar
- Davidson, A., and Thomson, E. Cross-cultural studies of attitudes and beliefs. In H. C. Triandis and R. Brislin (Eds.), Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 5. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1980.Google Scholar
- Delaine, B. A Sociological Approach to Coca Cultivation in the Chapare — Bolivia. La Paz, Bolivia: Prodes, 1980.Google Scholar
- Garner, W., and Creelman, C. D. Problems and methods of psychological scaling. In G. F. Summers (Ed.), Attitude Measurement. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1970.Google Scholar
- Green, P., and Rao, V. Applied Multidimensional Scaling: A Comparison of Approaches and Algorithms. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1972.Google Scholar
- Irvine, S. H., and Carroll, W. K. Testing and assessment across cultures: Issues in methodology and theory. In H. C. Triandis and J. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology: Methodology, Vol. 2. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1980.Google Scholar
- Kruskal, J., and Wish, M. Multidimensional Scaling. Beverly Hills, California: Sage, 1978.Google Scholar
- Rogers, E., and Shoemaker, F. Communication of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach. New York: Free Press, 1971.Google Scholar
- Torgerson, W. S. Theory and Methods of Scaling. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1958.Google Scholar