A Measurement Study of Test Anxiety Emphasizing its Evaluative Context

  • Knut A. Hagtvet
Chapter
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 21)

Abstract

When aiming at understanding individual differences in test anxiety two types of construct validation studies may be taken into account. External reference studies constitute the most frequently used type of studies in this field. Even though consistencies in findings have been obtained when test anxiety and test performance are correlated and in the interaction between anxiety and situational stress on test performances (Gaudry & Spielberger, 1971; Sarason, I. G., 1972, 1975a; Wine, 1971), difficulties in interpreting the findings in terms of constructs of anxiety have also been repeatedly emphasized (Cronbach & Snow, 1977, pp. 393–439; Nicholls, 1976; Pagano & Kathan, 1972; Sarason, S. B., 1966). However, construct validation requires multiple indications and another kind of construct validation study is the internal domain study. This type of study appears relevant when investigating the dimensionality of test anxiety. However, when considering factor analytic studies of frequently-used test anxiety scales from an internal domain point of view, the multiplicity of the obtained factorial findings makes it hard to state what the actual test anxiety scales are in fact measuring (cf., Adelson, 1969). Most test anxiety scales are used as if they measured a single construct, a usage that might seem justified by acceptable levels of estimated internal consistencies.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Knut A. Hagtvet
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Psychology, Department of PsychometricsUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

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