Extraversion-Introversion, Contingent Negative Variation, and Arousal

  • Peter F. Werre
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)


In order to gain more insight into the relationship between electroen-cephalographic (EEG) and psychological variables, normal and psychiatric subjects have been examined in a series of experiments. Because Eysenck’s (1967) personality theory relates neurophysiological and psychological observations, this theory was chosen as theoretical framework. The design of the experiments was such that hypotheses could be tested in a way that brought the subjects under appreciable stimulus control of the experimenter. As arousal is an important concept of the theory, results are reviewed here because they might give more insight into and delimitation of this concept. Its importance stands out in Gale’s (1981) summing-up of the essential constructs of the theory: (a) extraverts are less aroused than introverts; (b) there is an optimum level of arousal; and (c) individuals develop strategies designed to make their inherent level of arousal compatible with the optimum level.


Cortical Neuron Contingent Negative Variation Imperative Stimulus Contingent Negative Variation Amplitude Reticular System 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter F. Werre
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychiatric Centre RosenburgThe HagueThe Netherlands

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