Advertisement

Extraversion-Introversion, Contingent Negative Variation, and Arousal

  • Peter F. Werre
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)

Abstract

In order to gain more insight into the relationship between electroen-cephalographic (EEG) and psychological variables, normal and psychiatric subjects have been examined in a series of experiments. Because Eysenck’s (1967) personality theory relates neurophysiological and psychological observations, this theory was chosen as theoretical framework. The design of the experiments was such that hypotheses could be tested in a way that brought the subjects under appreciable stimulus control of the experimenter. As arousal is an important concept of the theory, results are reviewed here because they might give more insight into and delimitation of this concept. Its importance stands out in Gale’s (1981) summing-up of the essential constructs of the theory: (a) extraverts are less aroused than introverts; (b) there is an optimum level of arousal; and (c) individuals develop strategies designed to make their inherent level of arousal compatible with the optimum level.

Keywords

Cortical Neuron Contingent Negative Variation Imperative Stimulus Contingent Negative Variation Amplitude Reticular System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ashton, H., Millman, J. E., Telford, R., & Thompson, J. W. The effect of caffeine, nitrazepam and cigarette smoking on the contingent negative variation in man. Electroen-cephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1974, 37, 59–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashton, H., Marsh, V. R., Millman, J. E., Rawlins, M. D., Stepney, R., Telford, R., & Thompson, J. W. Patterns of behavioural, autonomic and electrophysiological response to cigarette smoking and nicotine in man. In A. Rémond & C. Izard (Eds.), Electrophysiological effects of nicotine. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedicai Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  3. Corcoran, D. W. J. Introversion-extraversion, stress and arousal. In R. Lynn (Ed.), Dimensions of personality. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  4. Dirken, J. M. De vragenlijst voor habituele aktie bereidheid. Groningen: Wolters-Noordhof, 1970.Google Scholar
  5. Eysenck, H. J. Dynamics of anxiety and hysteria. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957.Google Scholar
  6. Eysenck, H. J. The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1967.Google Scholar
  7. Eysenck, H. J., & O’Connor, K. P. Smoking, arousal and personality. In A. Rémond & C. Izard (Eds.), Electrophysiological effects of nicotine. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedicai Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  8. Gale, A. EEG studies of extraversion-introversion. In R. Lynn (Ed.), Dimensions of personality. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  9. Janssen, R. H. C., Mattie, H., Plooij-van Gorsel, P. C., & Werre, P. F. The effects of a depressant and a stimulant drug on the contingent negative variation. Biological Psychology, 1978, 6, 209–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kornhuber, H. H., & Deecke, L. (Eds.). Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain: Electrical potentials, behaviour and clinical use. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  11. McCallum, W. C., & Walter, W. G. The effects of attention and distraction on the contingent negative variation in normal and neurotic subjects. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1968, 25, 319–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nelsen, J. M. Psychobiological consequences of chronic nicotinization. In K. Battig (Ed.), Behavioural effects of nicotine. Basel: Karger, 1978.Google Scholar
  13. O’Connor, K. P. The contingent negative variation and individual differences in smoking behaviour. Personality and Individual Differences, 1980, 1, 57–72. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. O’Connor, K. P. Individual differences in situational preference amongst smokers. Personality and Individual Differences, 1980, 1, 249–257. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Robinson, D. L. Properties of the diffuse thalamocortical system and human personality: A direct test of Pavlovian/Eysenckian theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 1982, 3, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Robinson, D. L. An analysis of human EEG responses in the alpha range of frequencies. International journal of Neuroscience, 1983, 22, 81–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Samuels, I. Reticular mechanisms and behaviour. Psychological Bulletin, 1959, 56, 1–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Snijders, J. Th., & Verhage, F. Voorlopige handleiding bij de Groninger intelligentie test. Amsterdam: Swets en Zeitlinger, 1962.Google Scholar
  19. Strelau, J. Temperament, personality, activity. London: Academic Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  20. Tecce, J. J. Contingent negative variation (CNV) and psychological processes in man. Psychological Bulletin, 1972, 77, 73–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tecce, J. J., & Cattanach, L. Contingent negative variation. In E. Niedermeyer & F. Lopes da Silva (Eds.), Electroencephalography. Baltimore: Urban and Schwarzenberg, 1982.Google Scholar
  22. Tecce, J. J., & Cole, J. O. Amphetamine effects in man: Paradoxical drowsiness and lowered electrical brain activity (CNV). Science, 1974, 185, 451–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Werre, P. F. Aspects of the relationship between electroencephalographic and psychological variables in normal adults. In R. J. Broughton (Ed.), Henri Gastaut and the Marseilles school’s contribution to the neurosciences. Amsterdam: Elsevier Biomedicai Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  24. Werre, P. F. Contingent negative variation: Relation to personality, and modification by stimulation and sedation. In J. Strelau, F. H. Farley, & A. Gale (Eds.), The biological bases of personality and behavior: Psychophysiology, performance, and application (Vol. 2). Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere, 1986.Google Scholar
  25. Werre, P. F., Faverey, H. A., & Janssen, R. H. C. Contingent negative variation en persoonlijkheid. Leiden: Psychiatrische Kliniek Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, 1973.Google Scholar
  26. Werre, P. F., Faverey, H. A., & Janssen, R. H. C. Contingent negative variation and personality. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie, 1975, 30, 277–299.Google Scholar
  27. Werre, P. F., Mattie, H., Fortgens, C., Berretty, E. W., & Vibert-Jouandet, O. O. M. Interaction between extraversion and condition as indicated by contingent negative variation. In J. Spence & C. Izard (Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and personality. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Science Publishers, 1985.Google Scholar
  28. Wilde, G. J. S. Neurotische labiliteit gemeten volgens de vragenlijstmethode. Amsterdam: Van Rossen, 1962.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter F. Werre
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychiatric Centre RosenburgThe HagueThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations