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Electrochemical Kinetics at the Cell Membrane: A Psysicochemical Link for Electromagnetic Bioeffects

  • Arthur A. Pilla
  • Jonathan J. Kaufman
  • James T. Ryaby

Abstract

Pulsed electromagnetically induced current (PEMIC) has been shown to stimulate the healing of delayed and non-union fractures [1–17]. In addition many cell, tissue and animal systems have been affected by PEMIC having specific waveform parameters [18–65]. It is important to consider the origins of the choice of these waveform parameters in order to relate these to the mechanism of the PEMIC bioeffects. One of the authors (AAP) was profoundly influenced by the early work of Becker [66] who proposed that electric fields play a substantial role in generation. Bassett [67] then applied this idea to bone healing stating that the pathway through which bone adaptively reponds to mechanical input may be electrical. Pilla took the findings of these authors and used an electrochemical approach to predict a set of waveform parameters based on electrochemical kinetic interactions at the cell’s surfaces [68–75]. This approach ultimately led to the creation of PEMIC waveforms now in widespread clinical use for orthopaedic applications. It is now clear, however, that when discussing the physical mechanisms of interaction of electromagnetic fields at the cellular level it is necessary to consider the targets of both the electric and magnetic components. To explain electrical effects the electrochemical kinetic model considers the role of ions as transducers of information relevant to cell function [75–76]. Coupling of the current to membrane sites is determined at least in part by their dielectric properties [77]. The kinetics of this coupling has been described by considering ion binding as a trigger for follow-up biochemical steps [75, 76, 78, 79] or by a random-walk model wherein an electrical field having the correct frequency spectrum could impose a directional drift on a charged species near a binding site [80].

Keywords

Electromagnetic Field Platelet Derive Growth Factor Specific Adsorption Mechanical Input Pulse Burst 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur A. Pilla
    • 1
  • Jonathan J. Kaufman
    • 1
  • James T. Ryaby
    • 1
  1. 1.Bioelectrochemistry Laboratory, Department of OrthopaedicsMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

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