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As discussed in Section 2.1, the time span for a power system is divided into two sectors: the planning phase, which was the subject of Chapters 2–4, and the operating phase. In power system operation, the expected load must be predicted (short-term load forecasting) and sufficient generation must be scheduled accordingly. Reserve generation must also be scheduled in order to account for load forecast uncertainties and possible outages of generation plant. Once this capacity is scheduled and spinning, the operator is committed for the period of time it takes to achieve output from other generating plant; this time may be several hours in the case of thermal units but only a few minutes in the case of gas turbines and hydroelectric plant.
KeywordsLead Time Power Apparatus Response Risk Spinning Reserve Standby Unit
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