Self-Barbed Antler Spearpoints and Evidence of Fishing in the Late Upper Paleolithic of Cantabrian Spain

  • James Pokines
  • Marcy Krupa
Part of the Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology book series (IDCA)

Abstract

During the Upper Paleolithic in western Europe, osseous implements were an important component of hunting and gathering technologies. Bone, antler, and occasionally ivory were shaped into various tools that functioned as needles, awls, and most frequently as projectile points. The present discussion concerns a specific type of antler projectile point that is found in many Late Upper Paleolithic sites in northern Spain. The point (which is referred to here as self-barbed) is longitudinally curved, pointed on both extremes, laterally flattened and scored for hafting, and is usually shaped from antler (Figure 1).

Keywords

Migration Europe Gravel Hunt Excavation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albrecht, G., 1977, Testing of Materials as Used for Bone Points of the Upper Paleolithic. In Méthodologie Appliquée à l’Industrie de l’Os Préhistorique, edited by H. Camps-Fabrer, pp. 119-123. Éditions du Centre National du Recherche Scientifique, Paris.Google Scholar
  2. Altuna, J., and Merino, J. M., editors, 1984, El Yacimiento de la Cueva de Ekain (Deba, Guipuzcoa). Sociedad de Estudios Vascos, San Sebastián.Google Scholar
  3. Altuna, J., and Straus, L. G., 1976, The Solutrean of Altamira: The Artifactual and Faunal Evidence. Zephyrus 26-27:175–182.Google Scholar
  4. Arndt, S., and Newcomer, M., 1986, Breakage Patterns on Prehistoric Bone Points: An Experimental Study. In Studies in the Upper Paleolithic of Britain and Northwest Europe, edited by Roe, pp. 165-173. BAR International Series 296. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
  5. Bahn, P. G., 1983, Late Pleistocene Economies of the French Pyrenees. In Hunter-Gatherer Economy in Prehistory, edited by G. Bailey, pp. 168–186. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey, G., 1983, Economic Change in Late Pleistocene Cantabria. In Hunter-Gatherer Economy in Prehistory, edited by G. Bailey, pp. 149–165. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  7. Bailey, G., and Davidson, I., 1983, Site Exploitation Territories and Topography: Two Case Studies from Paleolithic Spain. Journal of Archaeological Science 10:87–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barandiarán Maestu, I., 1967, El Paleomesolitico del Pirineo Occidental. Seminario de Prehistória y Protohistória, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Monografias Arqueológicas 3, Zaragoza.Google Scholar
  9. Barandiarán Maestu, I., 1972a, Algunas Convenciónes de Representacion en las Figuras Animales del Arte Paleolitico. In Santander Symposium, edited by M. Almagro and M. A. Garcia Guinea, pp. 345-381. Patronato de las Cuevas Prehistóricas, Santander.Google Scholar
  10. Barandiarán Maestu, I., 1972b, Arte Mueble del Paleolitico Cantábrico. Seminario de Prehistória y Protohistória, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Monografías Arqueológicas 14, Zaragoza.Google Scholar
  11. Barandiarán Maestu, L, Freeman, L. G., González Echegaray J. and Klein, R. G., editors, 1987, Excavaciones en la Cueva Del Juyo. Centro de Investigación y Museo de Altamira, Monografías No. 14, Santander.Google Scholar
  12. Bergman. C. A., 1987, Hafting and Use of Bone and Antler Points from Ksar Akil, Lebanon. In La Main et l’Outil, edited by D. Stordeur-Yedid, pp. 117-126. Travaux de la Maison de l’Orient, No. 15, Lyon.Google Scholar
  13. Bernaldo de Quirós, F, 1982, Los Inicios del Paleolitico Superior Cantábrico. Centro de Investigación y Museo de Altamira Monografías No. 8, Santander.Google Scholar
  14. Bernaldo de Quirós, E, and Cabrera Valdés, V, 1993, Early Upper Paleolithic Industries of Cant-abrian Spain. In Before Lascaux: The Complex Record of the Early Upper Paleolithic, edited by H. Knecht, A. Pike-Tay and R. White, pp. 57–69. CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  15. Bouchud, J., 1974, L’origine Anatomique des Matériaux Osseux Utilisés dans les Industries Préhistoriques. In Premier Colloque International sur l’Industrie de l’Os dans la Préhistoire, edited by H. Camps-Fabrer, pp. 21-26. Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.Google Scholar
  16. Bouchud, J., 1977, Les Aiguilles en Os: Etude Comparée des Traces Laissées par la Fabrication et l’Usage sur le Matériel Préhistorique et les Objets Expérimentaux. In Méthodologie Appliquée à l’Industrie de l’Os Préhistorique, edited by H. Camps-Fabrer, pp. 257-267. Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.Google Scholar
  17. Breuil, H., 1935, The Cave of Altamira at Santillana del Mar; Spain. Tipografia de Archivos, Madrid.Google Scholar
  18. Breuil, H., and de Saint-Perier, R., 1927, Les Poissons, les Batraciens et les Reptiles dans l’Art Quaternaire. Archives de l’Institut de Paléontologie Humaine, Mémoire 2.Google Scholar
  19. Bricker, H. M., and David, N., 1984, Excavation of the Abri Pataud Les Eyzies (Dordogne). The Périgordian VI (Level 3) Assemblage. American School of Prehistoric Research Bulletin 34.Google Scholar
  20. Cabrera Valdés, V, 1984, El Yacimiento de la Cueva de “El Castillo” (Puente Viesgo, Santandcr). Bibliotheca Praehistorica Hispana, No. 22, Madrid.Google Scholar
  21. Campana, D. V, 1979, A Natufian Shaft-straightener from Mugharet el Wad, Israel: An Example of Wear Pattern Analysis. Journal of Field Archaeology 6:237–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Campana, D. V, 1989, Natufian and Protoneolithic Bone Tools. BAR International Series 494. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
  23. Clark, G. A., 1971, The Asturian of Cantabria: A Reevaluation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  24. Clark, G. A., 1974–1975, Excavations in the Late Pleistocene Cave Site of Balmori (Asturias, Spain). Quaternaria 18:383–426.Google Scholar
  25. Clark, G. A., and Straus, L. G., 1983, Late Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherer Adaptations in Cant-abrian Spain. In Hunter-Gatherer Economy in Prehistory, edited by G. Bailey, pp. 131–148. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  26. Clark, J. G. D., 1948, The Development of Fishing in Prehistoric Europe. The Antiquaries Journal 28:45–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clark, J. G. D., and Thompson, M. W, 1953, The Groove and Splinter Technique of Working Antler in Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Europe. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society (New Series) 19:148–160.Google Scholar
  28. Conkey, M. W, 1978, An Analysis of Design Structure: Variability among Magdalenian Engraved Bones from North-coastal Spain. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  29. Conkey, M. W, 1980, The Identification of Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Aggregation Sites: The Case of Altamira. Current Anthropology 21:609–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Corchón, M. S., 1986, El Arte Mueble Paleolitico Cantábrico. Centro de Investigación y Museo de Altamira Monografias No. 16, Santander.Google Scholar
  31. Cowper, H. S., 1906, The Art of the Attack. W. Holmes Ltd., Ulverston.Google Scholar
  32. Dams, L. R., 1987, Poissons et Contours de Type Pisciforme dans l’Art Pariétal Paléolithique. Bulletin de la Société Royale belge, d’Anthropologie et de Préhistoire 98:81–132.Google Scholar
  33. Davidson, I., 1976, Seasonality in Spain. Zephyrus 26-27:167–173.Google Scholar
  34. Diputación Regional de Cantabria, 1994, Disposiciones Generales. No. 260, December 30. Consejeria de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca, Santander, Spain.Google Scholar
  35. Freeman, L. G., 1981, The Fat of the Land: Notes on Paleolithic Diet in Iberia. In Omnivorous Primates, edited by R. S. O. Harding and G. Teleki, pp. 104–165. Stackpole Books, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Freeman, L. G., 1988, The Stratigraphic Sequence at Altamira, 1880–1981. Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, serie 1, Prehistória, 1:149–163.Google Scholar
  37. Freeman, L. G., González Echegaray, J., Klein, R. G., and Crowe, W. T., 1988, Dimensions of Research at El Juyo, an Earlier Magdalenian Site in Cantabrian Spain. In Upper Pleistocene Prehistory of Western Eurasia, edited by H. L. Dibble and A. Montet-White, pp. 1–39. University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  38. González Echegaray J., 1960, El Magdaleniense III de la costa Cantábrica. Boletin de Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologia, Universidad de Valledolid 26:69–100.Google Scholar
  39. Gonzalez Echegaray, J., and Barandiarán Maestu, I., editors, 1981, El Paleolitico Superior de la Cueva del Rascano (Santander). Centro de Investigación y Museo de Altamira, Monografias No. 3, Santander.Google Scholar
  40. González Sainz, C., 1989, El Magdaleniense Superior-Final de la Región Cantábnca. Tantin, Santander.Google Scholar
  41. Guthrie, R. D., 1983, Osseous Projectile Points: Biological Considerations Affecting Raw Material Selection and Design among Paleolithic and Paleoindian Peoples. In Animals and Archaeology, edited by J. Clutton-Brock and C. Grigson, pp. 273-294. BAR International Series 163. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
  42. Hallam, J. S., Edwards, B. J. N., Barnes, B., and Stuart, A. J., 1973, The Remains of a Late Glacial Elk associated with Barbed Points from High Furlong, near Blackpool, Lancashire. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 39:100–128.Google Scholar
  43. Hayden, B., Chisholm, B., and Schwarcz, H. P, 1987, Fishing and Foraging: Marine Resources in the Upper Paleolithic of France. In The Pleistocene Old World, edited by O. Soffer, pp. 279–291. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Janssens, P., and González Echegaray, J., 1958, Memoria de las Excavaciones de la Cueva del Juyo (1955-56). Patronato de las Cuevas Prehistóricas de la Provincia de Santander (España), Santander.Google Scholar
  45. Jochim, M. A., 1983, Paleolithic Cave Art in Ecological Perspective. In Hunter-Gatherer Economy in Prehistory, edited by G. Bailey, pp. 212–219. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  46. Julien, M., 1982, Les Harpons Magdaléniens. Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.Google Scholar
  47. Klein, R. G., Wolf, C., Freeman, L. G., and Allwarden, K., 1981, The Use of Dental Crown Heights for Constructing Age Profiles of Red Deer and Similar Species in Archaeological Samples. Journal of Archaeological Science 8:1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Knecht, H., 1991, Technological Innovation and Design During the Early Upper Paleolithic: A Study of Organic Projectile Technologies. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Anthropology, New York University.Google Scholar
  49. Knecht, H., 1993a, Early Upper Paleolithic Approaches to Bone and Antler Projectile Technology. In Hunting and Animal Exploitation in the Later Paleolithic and Mesolithic of Eurasia, edited by G. L. Peterkin, H. M. Bricker and P. Mellars, pp. 33-47. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association No.4.Google Scholar
  50. Knecht, H., 1993b, Splits and Wedges: The Techniques and Technology of Early Aurignacian Antler Working. In Before Lascaux: The Complex Record of the Early Upper Paleolithic, pp. 137–162. Edited by H. Knecht, A. Pike-Tay and R. White. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  51. Krupa, M., 1994, Limpets and Other Marine Molluscs: An Evaluation of Their Archeological Significance at El Juyo and Other Paleolithic Sites in Northern Spain. Master’s thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  52. Krupa, M., 1995, Local Adaptations to Coastal Ecological Niches during the Magdalenian in Northern Spain. Paper presented at the 60th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Minneapolis, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  53. MacGregor, A., 1985, Bone, Antler, Ivory, and Horn. Croon Helm, London.Google Scholar
  54. Mason, O. T., 1900, Aboriginal American Harpoons: A Study in Ethnic Distribution and Invention. Report of the U. S. National Museum, 13:189–304.Google Scholar
  55. McComb, P., 1989, Upper Paleolithic Osseous Artifacts from Britain and Belgium: An Inventory and Technological Description. BAR International Series 481. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
  56. Mills, D., 1989, Ecology and Management of Atlantic Salmon. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  57. Moure Romanillo, J. A., 1975, Excavaciones en la Cueva de “Tito Bustillo” (Asturias). Campanas de 1972 y 1974. Instituto de Estudios Asturianos, Oviedo.Google Scholar
  58. Netboy, A., 1968, The Atlantic Salmon. Faber and Faber, London.Google Scholar
  59. Netboy, A., 1980, Salmon. Winchester Press, Tulsa.Google Scholar
  60. Newcomer, M., 1974, Study and Replication of Bone Tools from Ksar Akil (Lebanon). World Archaeology 6:138–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Newcomer, M., 1977, Experiments in Upper Paleolithic Bone Work. Méthodologie Appliquée à l’Industrie de l’Os Préhistorique, edited by H. Camps-Fabrer, pp. 293–301. Éditions du Centre National du Recherche Scientifique, Paris.Google Scholar
  62. Obermaier, H., 1916, El Hombre Fosil. Comisión de Investigaciónes Paleontológicas y Prehistóricas, Memorias No. 9, Madrid.Google Scholar
  63. Obermaier, H., 1924, Fossil Man in Spain. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  64. Peltier, A., 1986, Étude Expérimentale des Surfaces Osseuses Façonnées et Utilisées. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 83:5–7.Google Scholar
  65. Peterkin, G. L, 1993, Lithic and Organic Hunting Technology in the French Upper Paleolithic. In Hunting and Animal Exploitation in the Later Paleolithic and Mesolithic of Eurasia, edited by G. L. Peterkin, H. M. Bricker and P. Mellars, pp. 48-67. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association No. 4, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  66. Peyrony, D., 1932, Les Gisements Préhistoriques de Bourdeilles (Dordogne). Archives de l’Institut de Paléontologie Humaine, Mémoire 10.Google Scholar
  67. Peyrony, D., and Peyrony, E., 1938, Lauge rie-Haute prés des Eyzies (Dordogne). Archives de l’Institut de Paléontologie Humaine, Mémoire 19.Google Scholar
  68. Pokines, J. T., 1993a, Antler as a Raw Material: Experimentation with Replicated Lower Mag-dalenian Spearpoints. Paper presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, April 15th, St. Louis, Missouri.Google Scholar
  69. Pokines, J. T., 1993b, Antler Points from El Juyo (Santander, Spain): Form, Manufacture, and Parameters of Use. Master’s thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  70. Radcliffe-Brown, A. R., 1948, The Andaman Islanders. The Free Press, Glencoe.Google Scholar
  71. Rostlund, E., 1952, Freshwater Fish and Fishing in Native North America. University of California Publications in Geography No. 9, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  72. Straus, L. G., 1975, A Study of the Solutrean in Vasco-Cantabrian Spain. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  73. Straus, L. G., 1977, Of Deerslayers and Mountain Men: Paleolithic faunal exploitation in Cant-abrian Spain. In For Theory Building in Archaeology, edited by L. R. Binford, pp. 41–76. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Straus, L. G., 1981, On Maritime Hunter-Gatherers: A View from Cantabrian Spain. Munibe 33:171–173.Google Scholar
  75. Straus, L. G., 1986, Late Würm Adaptive Systems in Cantabrian Spain. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 5:330–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Straus, L. G., 1987, Upper Paleolithic Ibex Hunting in Southwest Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 14:163–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Straus, L. G., 1992, Iberia before the Iberians. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  78. Straus, L. G., and Clark, G. A., editors, 1986, La Riera Cave. Arizona State University Anthropological Research Papers No. 36, Tempe.Google Scholar
  79. Thompson, M. W, 1954, Azilian Harpoons. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 20:193–211.Google Scholar
  80. Utrilla, P., 1981, El Magdaleniense Inferior y Medio en la Costa Cantábrica. Centro de Investi-gación y Museo de Altamira, Monografías No. 4, Santander.Google Scholar
  81. Vega del Sella, Conde de la, 1916, Paleolitico de Cueto de la Mina. Comisión de Investigaciónes Paleontológicas y Prehistóricas, Memorias No. 13, Madrid.Google Scholar
  82. Vega del Sella, Conde de la, 1930, Las Cuevas de la Riera y Balmori (Asturias). Comisión de Investigaciónes Paleontológicas y Prehistóricas, Memorias No. 38, Madrid.Google Scholar
  83. von Brandt, A., 1984, Fish Catching Methods of the World (Third edition). Fishing News Books Ltd., Farnham.Google Scholar
  84. Weniger, G.-C., 1987, Der Kauta Brische Harpunentyp. Madrider Mitteilungen 28:1–43.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Pokines
    • 1
  • Marcy Krupa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of Chicago, Haskell HallChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations