Advertisement

Baculovirus Pathogenesis

Chapter
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)

Abstract

Humans have been aware of diseases caused by baculoviruses for over 2000 years. The earliest historical accounts originated with descriptions of silkworm “jaundice,” a disease of Bombyx mori that we now know is caused by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus. In addition, people in various cultures throughout history have witnessed, without knowing their cause, spectacular epizootics and subsequent population declines brought about by nuclear polyhedrosis and granulosis viruses in caterpillars and sawfly larvae that feed in the forests and on field and vegetable crops (Benz, 1986). However, it was not until this century, and especially since the end of World War II, that the etiologic agents that cause these diseases were identified as a unique family of viruses, now known as the baculoviruses, which are largely restricted to insects. Moreover, although the literature from the first half of this century contains good descriptions of the diseases caused by nuclear polyhedrosis and granulosis viruses, it is only recently that we have begun to understand the progression of these diseases in their hosts and to identify the genes and gene products that underlie their various pathologies.

Keywords

Basal Lamina Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Tissue Tropism Midgut Epithelium Occlusion Body 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, J. R., Goodwin, R. H., and Wilcox, T. A., 1977, Electron microscope investigations on invasion and replication of insect baculoviruses in vivo and in vitro. Biol. Cellulaire 28:261.Google Scholar
  2. Adang, M. J., and Spence, K. D., 1981, Surface morphology of peritrophic membrane formation in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, Cell Tiss. Res. 218:214.Google Scholar
  3. Adang, M. J., and Spence, K. D., 1983, Permeability of the peritrophic membrane of the Douglas fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata), Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 74:233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aizawa, K., 1963, The nature of infections caused by nuclear-polyhedrosis viruses, in: Insect Pathology, An Advanced Treatise, Vol. 1 (E. A. Steinhaus, ed.), pp. 381–412, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Benz, G., 1963, A nuclear polyhedrosis of Malacosoma alpicola (Staudinger), J. Insect Pathol. 5:215.Google Scholar
  6. Benz, G. A., 1986, Introduction: Historical perspectives, in: The Biology of Baculoviruses, Vol. I, Biological Properties and Molecular Biology (R. R. Granados and B. A. Federici, eds.), pp. 1–35, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  7. Bussard, G. W., and Rohrmann, G. F., 1989, Location, sequence, transcriptional mapping, and temporal expression of the gp64 envelope glycoprotein gene of the Orgyia pseudotsugata multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Virology 170:537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blissard, G. W., and Rohrmann, G. F., 1990, Baculovirus diversity and molecular biology, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 35:127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blissard, G. W., and Wenz, J. R., 1992, Baculovirus gp64 envelope glycoprotein is sufficient to mediate pH-dependent membrane fusion, J. Virol. 66:6829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Charlton, C. A., and Volkman, L. E., 1993, Baculoviruses, vertebrate viruses, and cytoskeletons, in: Parasites and Pathogens of Insects, Vol. 2. Pathogens (N. E. Beckage, S. N. Thompson, and B. A. Federici, eds.), pp. 103–125, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  11. Couch, J. A., 1991, Baculoviridae. Part 2. Nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of invertebrates other than insects, in: Atlas of Invertebrate Viruses (J. R. Adams and J. R. Bonami, eds.), pp. 205–226, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  12. Cunningham, J. C., and Entwistle, P. F., 1981, Control of sawflies by baculovirus, in: Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases, 1970–1980 (H. D. Burges, ed.), pp. 379–407, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  13. Derksen, A. C. G., and Granados, R. R., 1988, Alteration of a lepidopteran peritrophic membrane by baculoviruses and enhancement of viral infectivity, Virology 167:241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Engelhard, E. K., Kam-Morgan, L. N. W., Washburn, J. O., and Volkman, L. E., 1994, The insect tracheal system: A conduit for the systemic spread of Autographa californica M nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:3224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Federici, B. A., 1986, Ultrastructure of baculoviruses, in: The Biology of Baculoviruses, Vol. I, Biological Properties and Molecular Biology (R. R. Granados and B. A. Federici, eds.), pp. 61–88, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  16. Federici, B. A., 1993, Viral pathobiology in relation to insect control, in: Parasites and Pathogens of Insects, Vol. 2, Pathogens (N. E. Beckage, S. N. Thompson, and B. A. Federici, eds.), pp. 81–101, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  17. Federici, B. A., and Anthony, D. W., 1972, Formation of virion-occluding protenic spindles in a baculovirus disease of Aedes trisehatus, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 20:129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Federici, B. A., and Lowe, R. E., 1972, Studies on the pathology of a baculovirus in Aedes triseriatus, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 20:14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Federici, B. A., and Stern, V. M., 1990, Replication and occlusion of a granulosis virus in larval and adult midgut epithelium of the western grapeleaf skeletonizer, Harrisina brillians, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 56:401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Flipsen, J. T. M., van Lent, J. W. M., Goldbach, R. W., and Vlak, J. M., 1993, Expression of polyhedrin and p10 in the midgut of AcMNPV-infected Spodoptera exigua larvae: An immunoelectron microscope investigation, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 61:17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Flipsen, J. T. M., Martens, J. W. M., Van Oers, M. M., Vlak, J. M., and Van Lent, J. W. M., 1995, Passage of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus through the midgut epithelium of Spodoptera exigua larvae, Virology 208:328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gijzen, M., Roelvink, P., and Granados, R. R., 1995, Characterization of a viral enhancing protein from Trichoplusia ni granulosis virus, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 65:289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Granados, R. R., 1978, Early events in the infection of Heliothis zea midgut cells by a baculovirus, Virology 90:170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Granados, R. R., and Lawler, K. A., 1981, In vivo pathway of Autographa californica baculovirus invasion and infection, Virology 108:297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Granados, R. R., and Williams, K. A., 1986, In vivo infection and replication of baculoviruses, in: The Biology of Baculoviruses, Vol. I, Biological Properties and Molecular Biology (R. R. Granados and B. A. Federici, eds.), pp. 89–108, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  26. Hamm, J. J., 1968, Comparative histopathology of a granulosis and a nuclear polylhedrosis of Spodoptera frugiperda, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 10:320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Harrap, K. A., 1970, Cell infection by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Virology 42:311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harrap, K. A., and Robertson, J. S., 1968, A possible infection pathway in the development of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus, J. Gen. Virol. 3:221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hashimoto, Y., Corsaro, B. G., and Granados, R. R., 1991, Location and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the viral enhancing factor of the Trichoplusia ni granulosis virus, J. Gen. Virol. 72:2645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hawtin, R. E., Arnold, K., Ayres, M. D., de A. Zanotto, P. M., Howard, S. C., Gooday, G. W., Chappell, L. H., Kitts, P. A., King, L. A., and Possee, R. D., 1995, Identification and preliminary characterization of a chitinase gene in the Autographa californica nuclear polyhdrosis virus genome, Virology 212:673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Horton, H. M., and Burand, J. P., 1993, Saturable attachment sites for polyhedron-derived baculovirus on insect cells and evidence for entry via direct membrane fusion, J. Virol. 67:1860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Huger, A., 1963, Granuloses of insects, in: Insect Pathology, An Advanced Treatise, Vol. 1 (E. A. Steinhaus, ed.), pp. 531–575, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Jarvis, D. L., and Garcia, Jr., A., 1994, Biosynthesis and processing of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus gp64 protein, Virology 205:300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Keddie, B. A., Aponte, G. W., and Volkman, L. E., 1989, The pathway of infection of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus in an insect host, Science 243:1729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kirkpatrick, B. A., Washburn, J. O., Engelhard, E. K., and Volkman, L. E., 1994, Primary infection of insect tracheae by Autographa californica M nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Virology 203:184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Larsson, R., 1984, Insect pathological investigations on Swedish Thysanura: A nuclear polyhedrosis virus of the Bristletail Dilta hibernica, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 44:172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lepore, L. S., Roelvink, P. R., and Granados, R. R., 1996, Enhancin, the granulosis virus protein that facilitates nucleopolyhedrosis (NPV) infections, is a metalloprotease, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 68:131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Monsma, S. A., Oomens, A. G. P., and Blissard, G. W., 1996, The gp64 envelope fusion protein is an essential baculovirus protein required for cell-to-cell transmission and infection, J. Virol. 70:4607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Knebel-Morsdorf, D., Flipsen, J. T. M., Roncarati, R., Jahnel, F., Kleefsmen, A. W. F., and Vlak, J. M., 1996, Baculovirus infection of Spodoptera exigua larvae: lacZ expression driven by promoters of early genes pe38 and me53 in larval tissue, J. Gen. Virol. 77:815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. O’Reilly, D. R., and Miller, L. K., 1989, A baculovirus blocks insect molting by producing ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase, Science 245:1110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. O’Reilly, D. R., and Miller, L. K., 1991, Improvement of a baculovirus pesticide by deletion of the EGT gene, Bio/technology 9:1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Paillot, A., 1935, Nouvel ultravirus parasite d’Agrotis segetum provoquant une proliferation des tissues infectes, C R Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 201:1062.Google Scholar
  43. Reddy, J. T., and Locke, M., 1990, The size limited penetration of gold particles through insect basal laminae, J. Insect Physiol. 36:397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rohrmann, G. F., 1986, Evolution of occluded baculoviruses, in: The Biology of Baculoviruses, Vol. I, Biological Properties and Molecular Biology (R. R. Granados and B. A. Federici, eds.), pp. 203–215, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  45. Smith, K. A., 1955, Intranuclear changes in the polyhedrosis of Tipula paludosa (Diptera), Nature 176:255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Smith, O. J., Hughes, K. M., Dunn, P. H., and Hall, I. M., 1956, A granulosis virus disease of the Western grapeleaf skeletonizer and its transmission, Can. Entomol. 88:507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Steinhaus, E. A., 1949, Principles of Insect Pathology, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Steinhaus, E. A., and Hughes, K. M., 1952, A granulosis virus of the Western grapeleaf skeletonizer, J. Econ. Entomol. 24:744.Google Scholar
  49. Summers, M. D., 1969, Apparent in vivo pathway of granulosis virus invasion and infection, J. Virol. 4:188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Summers, M. D., 1971, Electron microscopic observations on granulosis virus entry, uncoating, and replication process during infection of the midgut cells of Trichoplusia ni, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 35:606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tanada, Y., and Hess, R. T., 1991, Baculoviridae. Granulosis viruses, in: Atlas of Invertebrate Viruses (J. R. Adams and J. R. Bonami, eds.), pp. 227–257, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  52. Tanada, Y, and Kaya, H. K., 1993, Insect Pathology, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  53. Tanada, Y, and Leutenegger, R., 1968, Histopathology of a granulosis virus disease of the codling moth, Carpocapsa pomonella, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 10:39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tweeten, K. A., Bulla, L. A., and Consigli, R. A., 1981, Applied and molecular aspects of insect granuloses viruses, Microbiol. Rev. 45:379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. van Oers, M. M., Flipsen, J. T. M., Reusken, C. B. E. M., Sliwinsky, E. L., Goldbach, R. W, and Vlak, J. M., 1993, Functional domains of the p10 protein of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, J. Gen. Virol. 74:563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Volkman, L. E., and Knudson, D. L., 1986, In vitro replication of baculoviruses, in: The Biology of Baculoviruses, Vol. I, Biological Properties and Molecular Biology (R. R. Granados and B. A. Federici, eds.), pp. 109–120, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  57. Volkman, L. E., Blissard, G. W, Friesen, P., Keddie, B. A., Possee R., and Theilmann, D. A., 1995, Family Baculoviridae, in: Virus Taxonomy (F. A. Murphy, C. M. Fauquet, D. H. L. Bishop, S. A. Ghabrial, A. W. Jarvis, G. P. Martelli, M. A. Mayo, and M. D. Summers, eds.), pp. 104–113, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Walker, S., Kawanishi, C. Y, and Hamm, J. J., 1982, Cellular pathology of a granulosis virus infection, J. Ultrastr. Res. 80:163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wang, P., Hammer, D. A., and Granados, R. R., 1994, Interaction of Trichoplusia ni granulosis virus-encoded enhancin with the midgut epithelium and peritrophic membrane of four lepidopteran insects, J. Virol. 75:1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Washburn, J. O., Kirkpatrick, B. A., and Volkman, L. E., 1995, Comparative pathogenesis of Autographa californica M nuclear polyhedrosis virus in larvae of Trichoplusia ni and Heliothis virescens, Virology 209:561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Washburn, J. O., Kirkpatrick, B. A., and Volkman, L. E., 1996, Insect protection against viruses, Nature 383:767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Entomology and Interdepartmental Graduate Program in GeneticsUniversity of California at RiversideRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations