Advertisement

Auxiliary Genes of Baculoviruses

  • David R. O’Reilly
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)

Abstract

A consideration of the genes encoded by viruses suggests that they can be divided into two broad groups based on functions. First, all viruses carry genes essential for their own propagation. In addition to genes encoding viral structural proteins, these also include genes whose function is to ensure the expression of viral genes, the replication of its genome, the assembly and release of progeny virus particles, and the effective transmission of the virus to a new host. Viruses with small genomes achieve many of these functions by subverting the machinery of the host cell. Many small viruses only carry these essential genes.

Keywords

Proliferate Cell Nuclear Antigen Malpighian Tubule Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Infected Insect Late Gene Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adang, M. J., and Miller, L. K., 1982, Molecular cloning of DNA complementary to messenger RNA of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus location and gene products of RNA transcripts found late in infection, J. Virol. 44:782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahrens, C. H., Russell, R. L. Q., Funk, C. J., Evans, J. T., Harwood, S. H., and Rohrmann, G. F., 1997, The sequence of the Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome, Virology 229:381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alaoui-Ismaili, M. H., and Richardson, C. D., 1996, Identification and characterization of a filament-associated protein encoded by Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus, J. Virol. 70:2697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayres, M. D., Howard, S. C., Kuzio, J., Lopez-Ferber, M., and Possee, R. D., 1994, The complete DNA sequence of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Virology 202:586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bambara, R. A., and Jessee, C. B., 1991, Properties of DNA polymerases δ and ε, and their roles in eukaryotic DNA replication, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1088:11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bischoff, D. S., and Slavicek, J. M., 1994, Identification and characterization of a protein kinase gene in the Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus, J. Virol. 68:1728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bromme, D., and Okamoto, K., 1995, The baculovirus cysteine-protease has a cathepsin B-like S2-subsite specifity, Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 376:611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Broussard, D. R., Guarino, L. A., and Jarvis, D. L., 1996, Dynamic phosphorylation of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus pp31, J. Virol. 70:6767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, M., and Faulkner, P., 1975, Factors affecting the yield of virus in a cloned cell line of Trichoplusia ni infected with a nuclear polyhedrosis virus, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 26:251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burand, J., and Park, E., 1992, Effect of nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection on the development and pupation of gypsy moth larvae, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 60:171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burchell, B., and Coughtrie, M., 1989, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, Pharmacol. Ther. 43:261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Charbonneau, H., and Tonks, N. K., 1992, 1002 protein phosphatases? Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 8:463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheley, S., Kosik, K. S., Paskevich, P., Bakalis, S., and Bayley, H., 1992, Phosphorylated baculovirus p10 is a heat-stable microtubule-associated protein associated with process formation in Sf9 cells, J. Cell Sci. 102:739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Choi, J., and Guarino, L. A., 1995, Expression of the IE1 transactivator of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus during viral infection, Virology 209:99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clarke, E. E., Tristem, M., Cory, J. S., and O’Reilly, D. R., 1996, Characterization of the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase gene from Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrosis virus, J. Gen. Virol. 77:2865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crawford, A. M., and Miller, L. K., 1988, Characterization of an early gene accelerating expression of late genes of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, J. Virol. 62:2773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dixon, L. K., Twigg, S. R. F., Baylis, S. A., Vydelingum, S., Bristow, C., Hammond, J. M., and Smith, G. L., 1994, Nucleotide sequence of a 55 kbp region from the right end of the genome of a pathogenic African swine fever virus isolate (Malawi LIL20/1), J. Gen. Virol. 75:1655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dunigan, D. D., Dietzgen, R. G., Schoelz, J. E., and Zaitlin, M., 1988, Tobacco mosaic virus particles contain ubiquitinated coat protein subunits, Virology 165:310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eldridge, R., Li, Y., and Miller, L. K., 1992a, Characterization of a baculovirus gene encoding a small conotoxin-like polypeptide, J. Virol. 66:6563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Eldridge, R., O’Reilly, D. R., Hammock, B. D., and Miller, L. K., 1992b, Insecticidal properties of genetically engineered baculoviruses expressing an insect juvenile hormone esterase gene, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Erps, L. T., Ritter, J. K., Hersh, J. H., Blossom, D., Martin, N. C., and Owens, I. S., 1994, Identification of two single base substitutions in the UGT1 gene locus which abolish bilirubin uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase activity in vitro, J. Clin. Invest. 93:564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fan, X., Thirunavukkarasu, K., and Weaver, R. R, 1996, Temperature-sensitive mutations in the protein kinase-1 (pk-1) gene of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus that block very late gene expression, Virology 224:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Flipsen, J. T. M., Mans, R. M. W., Kleefsman, A. W. F., Knebel-Mörsdorf, D., and Vlak, J. M., 1995, Deletion of the baculovirus ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase gene induces early degeneration of Malpighian tubules in infected insects, J. Virol. 69:4529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fraser, M. J., Cary, L., Boonvisudhi, K., and Wang, H.-G. H., 1995, Assay for movement of lepidopteran transposon IFP2 in insect cells using a baculovirus genome as a target DNA, Virology 211:397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Funk, C. J., and Consigli, R. A., 1993, Phosphate cycling on the basic protein of Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus, Virology 193:396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gönnet, P., and Devauchelle, G., 1987, Obtention par recombinaison dans le gène du polypeptide p10 d’un baculovirus exprimant le gène de résistance à la néomycine dans les cellules d’insecte, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 305 (Serie III):111.Google Scholar
  27. Guan, K., Broyles, S. S., and Dixon, J. E., 1991, A Tyr/Ser protein phosphatase encoded by vaccinia virus, Nature 350:359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Guarino, L. A., 1990, Identification of a viral gene encoding a ubiquitin-like protein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guarino, L. A., Dong, W., Xu, B., Broussard, D., Davis, R. W, and Jarvis, D. L., 1992, Baculovirus phosphoprotein pp31 is associated with virogenic stroma, J. Virol. 66:7113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Guarino, L. A., Smith, G., and Dong, W, 1995, Ubiquitin is attached to membranes of baculovirus particles by a novel type of phospholipid anchor, Cell 80:301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Haas, A. L., Katzung, D. J., Reback, P. M., and Guarino, L. M., 1996, Functional characterization of the ubiquitin variant encoded by the baculovirus Autographa californica, Biochemistry 35:5385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hakes, D. J., Martell, K. J., Zhao, W.-G., Massung, R. R, Esposito, J. J., and Dixon, J. E., 1993, A protein phosphatase related to the vaccinia virus VH1 is encoded in the genomes of several orthopoxviruses and a baculovirus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:4017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hanks, S. K., Quinn, A. M., and Hunter, T., 1988, The protein kinase family: Conserved features and deduced phylogeny of the catalytic domains, Science 241:42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hawtin, R. E., Arnold, K., Ayres, M. D., Zanotto, P. M. D. A., Howard, S. C., Gooday, G. W, Chappell, L. H., Kitts, P. A., King, L. A., and Possee, R. D., 1995, Identification and preliminary characterization of a chitinase gene in the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome, Virology 212:673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Herendeen, D., Kassavetis, G., Barry, J., Alberts, B., and Geiduschek, E., 1989, Enhancement of bacteriophage T4 late transcription by components of the T4 DNA replication apparatus, Science 245:952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hill, J. E., Kuzio, J., and Faulkner, P., 1995, Identification and characterization of the v-cath gene of the baculovirus CfMNPV, Biochim. Biophys. Ada 1264:275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hingamp, P. M., Leyland, M. L., Webb, J., Twigger, S., Mayer, R. J., and Dixon, L. K., 1995, Characterization of a ubiquitinated protein which is externally located in African swine fever virions, J. Virol. 69:1785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hochstrasser, M., 1996, Protein degradation or regulation: Ub the judge, Cell 84:813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ignoffo, C.M., and Garcia, C., 1994, Antioxidant and oxidant enzyme effects of the inactivation of inclusion bodies of the Heliothis baculovirus by simulated sunlight UV, Environ. Entomol. 23:1025.Google Scholar
  40. Johnson, G. P., Goebel, S. J., and Paoletti, E., 1993, An update on the vaccinia virus genome, Virology 196:381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Keeley, L. L., and Vinson, S. B., 1975, Beta-ecdysone effects on the development of nucleopolyhedrosis in Heliothis spp, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 26:121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kelly, D. C., and Lescott, T., 1984, Baculovirus replication: Phosphorylation of polypeptides synthesised in Trichoplusia ni nuclear polyhedrosis virus-infected cells, J. Gen. Virol. 65:1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kelly, T. J., Park, E. J., Masler, C. A., and Burand, J. P., 1995, Characterization of the glycosylated ecdysteroids in the hemolymph of baculovirus-infected gypsy moth larvae and cells in culture, Eur. J. Entomol. 92:51.Google Scholar
  44. Keyse, S. M., 1995, An emerging family of dual specificity MAP kinase phosphatases, Biochim. Biophys. Ada 1265:152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kim, D., and Weaver, R. F., 1993, Transcription mapping and functional analysis of the protein tyrosine/serine phosphatase (PTPase) gene of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Virology 195:587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kool, M., Ahrens, C. H., Goldbach, R. W, Rohrmann, G. F., and Vlak, J. M., 1994, Identification of genes involves in DNA replication of Autographa californica baculovirus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:11212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kumar, S., and Miller, L. K., 1987, Effects of serial passage of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus in cell culture, Virus Res. 7:335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kuzio, J., Rohel, D. Z., Curry, C. J., Krebs, A., Carstens, E. G., and Faulkner, P., 1984, Nucleotide sequence of the p10 polypeptide gene of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Virology 139:414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lanier, L. M., Slack, J. M., and Volkman, L. E., 1996, Actin binding and proteolysis by the baculovirus AcMNPV: The role of virion-associated V-CATH, Virology 216:380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Leisy, D. J., Rohrmann, G. F., Nesson, M., and Beaudreau, G. S., 1986, Nucleotide sequencing and transcriptional mapping of the Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus p10 gene, Virology 153:157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Li, Y., and Miller, L. K., 1995a, Expression and functional analysis of a baculovirus gene encoding a truncated protein kinase homolog, Virology 206:314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Li, Y., and Miller, L. K., 1995b, Expression and localization of a baculovirus protein phosphatase, J. Gen. Virol. 76:2941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Li, Y., and Miller, L. K., 1995c, Properties of a baculovirus mutant defective in the protein phosphatase gene, J. Virol. 69:4533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Li, Y., Lu, Z., Burbank, D. E., Kutish, G. F., Rock, D. L., and Van Etten, J. L., 1995, Analysis of 43 kb of the Chlorella virus PBCV-1 330-kb genome: Map positions 45 to 88, Virology 212:134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Liu, K., Lemon, B., and Traktman, P., 1995, The dual-specificity phosphatase encoded by vaccinia virus, VH1, is essential for viral transcription in vivo and in vitro, J. Virol. 69:7823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lu, A., and Miller, L. K., 1995, The roles of eighteen baculovirus late expression factor genes in transcription and DNA replication, J. Virol. 69:975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lu, Z., Li, Y., Que, Q., Kutish, G., Rock, D. L., and Van Etten, J. L., 1996, Analysis of 94kb of the Chlorella virus PBCV-1 330-kb genome: Map positions 88 to 182, Virology 216:102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mackenzie, P., 1990, Expression of chimeric cDNAs in cell culture defines a region of UDP glucuronosyltransferase involved in substrate selection, J. Biol. Chem. 265:3432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Maeda, S., 1996, Genbank entry, Accession number L33180.Google Scholar
  60. Mainprize, T. H., Lee, K., and Miller, L. K., 1986, Variation in the temporal expression of overlapping baculovirus transcripts, Virus Res. 6:85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Maruniak, J. E., and Summers, M. D., 1981, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus phosphoproteins and synthesis of intra cellular proteins after virus infection, Virology 109:25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Meyers, G., Tautz, N., Dubovi, E. J., and Thiel, H. J., 1991, Viral cytopathogenicity correlated with integration of ubiquitin-coding sequences, Virology 180:602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Miller, L. K., Adang, M. J., and Browne, D., 1983, Protein kinase activity associated with the extracellular and occluded forms of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, J. Virol. 46:275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Morris, T. D., Todd, J. W., Fisher, B., and Miller, L. K., 1994, Identification of lef-7: A baculovirus gene affecting late gene expression, Virology 200:360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mossman, K., Ostergaard, H., Upton, C., and McFadden, G., 1995, Myxoma virus and Shope fibroma virus encode dual-specificity tyrosine/serine phosphatases which are essential for virus viability, Virology 206:572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Murray, K. D., Shields, K. S., Burand, J. P., and Elkinton, J. S., 1991, The effect of gypsy moth metamorphosis on the development of nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection, J. Invertbr. Pathol. 57:352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nichols, A. F., and Sancar, A., 1992, Purification of PCNA as a nucleotide excision repair protein, Nucleic Acids Res. 20:2441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ohkawa, T., Majima, K., and Maeda, S., 1994, A cysteine protease encoded by the baculovirus Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus, J. Virol. 68:6619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Olivera, B. M., Mclntosh, J. M., Cruz, L. J., Luque, F. A., and Gray, W. R., 1984, Purification and sequence of a presynaptic peptide toxin from Conus geographus venom, Biochemistry 23:5087.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Olivera, B. M., Rivier, J., Scott, J. K., Hillyard, D. R., and Cruz, L. J., 1991, Conotoxins, J. Biol. Chem. 266:22067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. O’Reilly, D. R., 1995, Baculovirus-encoded ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferases, Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 25:541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. O’Reilly, D. R., and Miller, L. K., 1989, A baculovirus blocks insect molting by producing ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase, Science 245:1110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. O’Reilly, D. R., and Miller, L. K., 1990, Regulation of expression of a baculovirus ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase gene, J. Virol. 64:1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. O’Reilly, D. R., and Miller, L. K., 1991, Improvement of a baculovirus pesticide by deletion of the egt gene, Bio/Technology 9:1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. O’Reilly, D. R., Crawford, A. M., and Miller, L. K., 1989, Viral proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Nature 337:606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. O’Reilly, D. R., Passarelli, A. L., Goldman, I. F., and Miller, L. K., 1990, Characterization of the DA26 gene in a hypervariable region of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome, J. Gen. Virol. 7:1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. O’Reilly, D. R., Howarth, O. W., Rees, H. H., and Miller, L. K., 1991, Structure of the ecdysone glucoside formed by a baculovirus ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase, Insect Biochem. 21:795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. O’Reilly, D. R., Brown, M. R., and Miller, L. K., 1992, Alteration of ecdysteroid metabolism due to baculovirus infection of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: Host ecdysteroids are conjugated with galactose, Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 22:313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. O’Reilly, D. R., Kelly, T. J., Masler, E. P., Thyagaraja, B. S., Robson, R. M., Shaw, T. C., and Miller, L. K., 1995, Overexpression of Bombyx mori prothoracicotropic hormone using baculovirus vectors, Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 25:475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pardini, R. S., 1995, Toxicity of oxygen from naturally occurring redox-active pro-oxidants, Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 29:101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Park, E. J., Burand, J. P., and Yin, C.-M., 1993, The effect of baculovirus infection on ecdysteroid titer in gypsy moth larvae, J. Insect Physiol 39:791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Possee, R., Sun. T.-P., Howard, S., Ayres, M., Hill-Perkins, M., and Gearing, K., 1991, Nucleotide sequence of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis 9.4 kbp EcoRI-I and-R (polyhedrin gene) region, Virology 185:229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Prelich, G., Tan, C. K., Kostura, M., Mathews, M. B., So, A. G., Downey, K. M., and Stillman, B., 1987, Functional identity of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and a DNA polymerase-δ auxiliary protein, Nature 326:517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Putterman, D., Pepinsky, R. B., and Vogt, V. M., 1990, Ubiquitin in avian leukosis virus particles, Virology 176:633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Quant-Russell, R. L., Pearson, M. N., Rohrmann, G. F., and Beaudreau, G. S., 1987, Characterization of baculovirus p10 synthesis using monoclonal antibodies, Virology 160:9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rankin, C., Ladin, B. F., and Weaver, R. F., 1986, Physical mapping of temporally regulated, overlapping transcripts in the region of the 10K protein gene in Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, J. Virol. 57:18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Rawlings, N. D., Pearl, L. H., and Buttle, D. J., 1992, The baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome includes a papain-like sequence, Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 373:1211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Reilly, L. M., and Guarino, L. A., 1994, The pk-1 gene of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus encodes a protein kinase, J. Gen. Virol. 75:2999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Reilly, L. M., and Guarino, L. A., 1996, The viral ubiquitin gene of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus is not essential for viral replication, Virology 218:243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Riddiford, L. M., 1985, Hormone action at the cellular level, in: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Vol. 8, pp. 37–48, Pergamon Press, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  91. Robinow, S., Talbot, W. S., Hogness, D. S., and Truman, J. W., 1993, Programmed cell death in the Drosophila CNS is ecdysone-regulated and coupled with a specific ecdysone receptor isoform, Development 119:1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Roelvink, P., Van Meer, M., De Kort, C., Possee, R., Hammock, B., and Vlak, J., 1992, Dissimilar expression of Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus polyhedrin and p10 genes, J. Gen Virol. 73:1481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Russell, R. L. Q., and Rohrmann, G. F., 1993, Nucleotide sequence of the ubiquitin-39K gene region from the Orgyia pseudotsugata multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome, J. Gen. Virol. 74:1191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Russell, R. L. Q., Pearson, M. N., and Rohrmann, G. F., 1991, Immunoelectron microscopic examination of Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus-infected Lymantria dispar cells: Time course and localization of major polyhedron-associated proteins, J. Gen. Virol. 72:275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ryerse, J. S., 1980, The control of Malpighian tubule developmental physiology by 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone, J. Insect Physiol. 26:449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Samuels, R. I., and Paterson, I. C., 1995, Cuticle degrading proteases from insect moulting fluid and culture filtrates of entomopathogenic fungi, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 110B:661.Google Scholar
  97. Sauerbier, W., and Hercules, W., 1993, Gene and transcription unit mapping by radiation effects, Annu. Rev. Genet. 12:329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schwartz, L. M., and Truman, J. W., 1983, Hormonal control of rates of metamorphic development in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, Dev. Biol. 99:103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sheng, Z., and Charbonneau, H., 1993, The baculovirus Autographa californica encodes a protein tyrosine phosphatase, J. Biol. Chem. 268:4728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Shivji, M., Kenny, M., and Wood, R., 1992, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen is required for DNA excision repair, Cell 69:367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shivji, M. K. K., Grey, S. J., Strausfeld, U. P., Wood, R. D., and Blow, J. J., 1994, Cipl inhibits DNA replication but not PCNA-dependent nucleotide excision-repair, Curr. Biol. 4:1062.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Skinner, W. S., Dennis, P. A., Li, J. P., and Quistad, G. B., 1992, Identification of insecticidal peptides from venom of the trap-door spider, Aptostichus ichlingeri (Ctenizidae), Toxicon 30:1043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Slack, J. M., Kuzio, J., and Faulkner, P., 1995, Characterization of v-cath, a cathepsin L-like proteinase expressed by the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus, J. Gen. Virol. 76:1091.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Smith, G. E., Vlak, J. M., and Summers, M. D., 1982, In vitro translation of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus early and late mRNAs, J. Virol. 44:189.Google Scholar
  105. Tomalski, M. D., Eldridge, R., and Miller, L. K., 1991, A baculovirus homolog of a Cu/Zn Superoxide dismutase gene, Virology 184:149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tribe, D., Bulach, D. M., Goodge, K., Robertson, A. P. S., Wu, T., Lee, H., McAdams, A., and Cowan, P. J., 1994, Genbank entry, Accession number L36721.Google Scholar
  107. van der Wilk, E, van Lent, J. W. M., and Vlak, J. M., 1987, Immunogold detection of polyhedrin, p10 and virion antigens in Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda cells, J. Gen. Virol. 68:2615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. van Oers, M. M., Flipsen, J. T. M., Reusken, C. B. E. M., Sliwinsky, E. L., Goldbach, R. W., and Vlak, J. M., 1993, Functional domains of the p10 protein of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, J. Gen. Virol. 74:563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. van Oers, M. M., and Vlak, J. M., The baculovirus 10 kilodalton protein, J. Invertebr. Vathol., in press.Google Scholar
  110. van Strien, E. A., Jansen, B. J. H., Mans, R. M. W., Zuidema, D., and Vlak, J. M., 1996 Sequence and transcriptional analysis of the ubiquitin gene cluster in the genome of Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus, J. Gen. Virol. 77:2311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vialard, J. E., and Richardson, C. D., 1993, The 1,629-nucleotide open reading frame located down stream of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus polyhedrin gene encodes a nucleocapsid-associated phosphoprotein, J. Virol. 67:5859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Vlak, J. M., Klinkenberg, F. A., Zaal, K. J. M., Usmany, M., Klinge-Roode, E. C., Geervliet, J. B. F., Roosien, J., and Van Lent, J. W. M., 1988, Functional studies on the p10 gene of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus using a recombinant expressing a p10-β-galactosidase fusion gene, J. Gen. Virol. 69:765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Waseem, N. H., Labib, L.; Nurse, P., and Lane, D. P., 1992, Isolation and analysis of the fission yeast gene encoding polymerase δ accessory protein PCNA, EMBO J. 11:5111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Whitt, M. A., and Manning, J. S., 1988, A phosphorylated 34-kDa protein and a subpopulation of polyhedrin are thiol linked to the carbohydrate layer surrounding a baculovirus occlusion body, Virology 163:33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Williams, G. V, Rohel, D. Z., Kuzio, J., and Faulkner, P., 1989, A cytopathological investigation of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus p10 gene function using insertiondeletion mutants, J. Gen. Virol. 70:187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wilson, J. A., Hill, J. E., Kuzio, J., and Faulkner, P., 1995, Characterization of the baculovirus Choristoneura fumiferana multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus p10 gene indicates that the polypeptide contains a coiled-coil domain, J. Gen. Virol. 76:2923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wilson, M. E., and Consigli, R. A., 1985, Functions of a protein kinase activity associated with purified capsids of the granulosis virus infecting Plodia interpunctella, Virology 143:526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Xiong, Y., Zhang, H., and Beach, D., 1992, D type cyclins associate with multiple protein kinases and the DNA replication and repair factor PCNA, Cell 71:505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zuidema, D., van Oers, M. M., van Strien, E. A., Caballero, P. C., Klok, E.-J., Goldbach, R. W, and Vlak, J. M., 1993, Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of the p10 gene of Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus, J. Gen. Virol. 74:1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • David R. O’Reilly
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Imperial College of Science, Technology, and MedicineLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations