Cognitive Deficits Related to Memory Impairments in Alcoholism

  • Marlene Oscar-Berman
  • Ronald J. Ellis
Part of the Recent Developments in Alcoholism book series (RDIA, volume 5)


Cognitive impairments related to alcoholism are examined in terms of input, intervening, and output variables. Respectively, the dysfunctions are represented by visuospatial/perceptual abnormalities, affective/conative deficits, and strong perseverative response tendencies. Defects in one or more of these aspects of cognitive functioning may appear as problems of memory. Functional differences between subgroups of alcoholics who do and do not develop severe anterograde amnesia characteristic of Korsakoff’s syndrome presumably are attributable to differences in the distribution and extent of brain pathology. Both subgroups have widespread cortical pathology, which may play an important role in stimulus-processing deficiencies observed in both. Korsakoffs have demonstrated a more significant degree of pathology in diencephalic and basal forebrain structures than that observed in non-Korsakoff alcoholics; this may contribute to the greater memory and affective impairments in the former. However, in no subgroup of alcoholics can a single functional system or brain region be implicated as the major contributory factor. Rather, damage to multiple brain regions likely is responsible for the plethora of cognitive difficulties reported in the alcoholism literature.


Memory Impairment Chronic Alcoholic Chronic Alcohol Abuse Nonverbal Stimulus Stud Alcohol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anderson NS: Cognition, in Corsini RJ (ed): Encyclopedia of Psychology. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1984, p 228.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arendt T, Bigl V, Arendt A, et al: Loss of neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert in Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neurol 61:101–108, 1983.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bear D: Hemispheric specialization and the neurology of emotion. Arch Neurol 40:195–202, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Begleiter H, Porjesz B, Chou CL: Auditory brainstem potentials in chronic alcoholics. Science 211:1064–1066, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bertera JH, Parsons OA: Impaired visual search in alcoholics. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res 2:9–14, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Biber C, Butters N, Rosen J, et al: Encoding strategies and recognition of faces by alcoholic Korsakoff and other brain-damaged patients. J Clin Neuropsychol 3:315–330, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blucewicz MJ, Cannon WG, Dustmann RE: Alcoholism and aging: Similarities and differences in neuropsychological performance, in Wood WG, Elias MF (eds): Alcoholism and Aging: Advances in Research. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1982, pp 47–60.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bower GH: Mood and memory. Am Psychol 36:129–148, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bower GH, Mayer JD: Failure to replicate mood-dependent retrieval. Bull Psychon Soc 23:39–42, 1985.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brandt J, Butters N, Ryan C, et al: Cognitive loss and recovery in long-term alcohol abusers. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40:435–442, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Butters N: The continuity hypothesis: Some conclusions and their implications for the etiology and neuropathology of alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome, in Parsons OA, Butters NM, Nathan P (eds): Neuropsychology of Alcoholism: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, Guilford Press (in press).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Butters N, Cermak LS: Alcoholic Korsakoff’s Syndrome: An Information Processing Approach to Amnesia. New York, Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cermak LS: Models of memory loss in Korsakoff and alcoholic patients, in Parsons OA, Butters NM, Nathan P (eds): Neuropsychology of Alcoholism: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, Guilford Press (in press).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chandler BC, Parsons OA: Visual search on the ascending and descending limbs of the blood alcohol curve. Alcohol Tech Rep 4:23–27, 1975.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chelune GJ, Parker JB: Neuropsychological deficits associated with chronic alcohol abuse. Clin Psychol Review 1:181–195, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cohen NJ: Preserved learning capacity in amnesia: Evidence for multiple memory systems, in Butters N, Squire LR (eds): The Neuropsychology of Memory. New York, Guilford Press, 1984, pp 83–103.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cohen S: The Psychology of Cognition. New York, Academic Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Courville CB: Effects of Alcohol on the Nervous System of Man. Los Angeles, San Lucas Press, 1955.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cox JK, D’Amato MR: Matching to compound samples by monkeys (Cebus apella): Shared attention or generalization decrement? J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Proc 8:209–225, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cutting J: Patterns of performance in amnesic subjects. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 41:278–282, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Davidoff DA, Butters N, Gerstman LJ, et al: Affective/motivational factors in the recall of prose passages by alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Alcohol 1:63–69, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Drever J: Dictionary of Psychology. London, Penguin, 1952.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Duyckaerts C, Derouesne C, Signoret JL, et al: Bilateral and limited amygdalohippocampal lesions causing a pure amnesic syndrome. Ann Neurol 18:314–319, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Eckhardt MJ, Ryback RS: Neuropsychological concomitants of alcoholism, in Galanter M (ed): Currents in Alcoholism (vol 5). New York, Grune & Stratton, 1978, pp 5–27.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ellis RJ, Oscar-Berman M: Effects of aging and alcoholism on recognition of dichhaptically presented stimuli. Int Neuropsychol Soc Bull 13:14, 1984.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fabian MS, Jenkins RL, Parsons OA: Gender, alcoholism and clinical neuropsychological functioning. J Consult Clin Psychol 49:139–141, 1981.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fitzhugh LC, Fitzhugh KB, Reitan RM: Adaptive abilities and intellectual functioning of hospitalized alcoholics. Q J Stud Alcohol 21:414–423, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fitzhugh LC, Fitzhugh KB, Reitan RM: Adaptive abilities and intellectual functioning of hospitalized alcoholics: Further considerations. Q J Stud Alcohol 26:402–411, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Freedman M, Oscar-Berman M: Bilateral frontal lobe disease and selective delayed-response deficits in humans. Behav Neurosci 100:337–342, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gebhardt C: Computer analyses of CT scans of chronic alcoholics: The relation of third ventricle region to memory and of frontal-parietal regions in perception. Doctoral dissertation, Boston University, 1981.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Geffen G, Quinn K: Hemispheric specialization and ear advantages in processing speech. Psychol Bull 96:273–291, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Glosser G, Butters N, Samuels I: Failure in information processing in patients with Kor-sakoffs syndrome. Neuropsychologia 14:327–334, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Goldstein G, Shelly C: Neuropsychological investigation of brain lesion localization in alcoholism. Adv Exp Med Biol 126:731–743, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goldstein G, Neuringer C, Klappersack B: Cognitive, perceptual and motor aspects of field dependency in alcoholics. J Genet Psychol 117:253–266, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Goodglass H, Kaplan EF: Assessment of cognitive deficits in the brain-injured patient, in Gazzaniga MS (ed): Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology (vol 2). New York, Plenum Press, 1979, pp 3–22.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Goodglass H, Peck EA: Dichotic ear order effects in Korsakoff and normal subjects. Neuropsychologia 10:211–217, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Graf P, Squire LR, Mandler G: The information that amnesic patients do not forget. J Exp Psychol Learning Memory Cognition 10:164–178, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gudeman HE, Craine JF, Golden CJ, et al: Higher cortical dysfunction associated with long-term alcoholism. Int J Neurosci 8:33–40, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Heilman K, Bowers D, Coslett HB, et al: Directional hypokinesia: Prolonged reaction times for leftward movements in patients with right hemisphere lesions and neglect. Neurology (NY) 35:855–859, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Huppert FA, Piercy M: Recognition memory in amnesic patients: A defect of acquisition. Neuropsychologia 15:643–653, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jacobsen CF, Nissen HW: Studies of cerebral function in primates: IV. The effects of frontal lobe lesions on the delayed alternation habit in monkeys. J Comp Physiol Psychol 23:101–112, 1937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jacoby LL: Incidental vs. intentional retrieval: Remembering and awareness as separate issues, in Squire LR, Butters N (eds): The Neuropsychology of Memory. New York, Guilford Press, 1984, pp 145–156.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jenkins RL, Parsons OA: Lateralized patterns of tactual performance in alcoholics, in Galanter M (ed): Currents in Alcoholism (vol 2). New York, Grune & Stratton, 1979, pp 285–296.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jones BM: Verbal and spatial intelligence in short-and long-term alcoholics. J Nerv Ment Dis 153:292–297, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jones BM: Performance of chronic alcoholics on the JVAT: A test of the temporal sequencing deficit hypothesis using a verbal abstraction task. Paper presented at the Southwestern Psychological Association Meetings, San Antonio, Texas, April, 1971.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jones BM, Parsons OA: Impaired abstracting ability in chronic alcoholics. Arch Gen Psychiatry 24:71–75, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kaplan E: Changes in cognitive style with aging, in Obler LK, Albert ML (eds): Language and Communication in the Elderly. Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1980, pp 121–132.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kapur N, Butters N: Visuoperceptive deficits in long-term alcoholics and alcoholics with Korsakoff s psychosis. J Stud Alcohol 38:2025–2035, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kinsbourne M, Wood F: Theoretical considerations regarding the episodic-semantic memory distinction, in Cermak LS (ed): Human Memory and Amnesia. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1982, pp 195–217.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kleinknecht RA, Goldstein SG: Neuropsychological deficits associated with alcoholism. Q J Stud Alcohol 33:999–1019, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Klisz DK, Parsons OA: Hypothesis testing in younger and older alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 38:1718–1729, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kostandov EA, Arsumanov YL, Genkina OA, et al: The effects of alcohol on hemispheric functional asymmetry. J Stud Alcohol 43:411–426, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lewis EJ, Dustman RE, Beck EC: The effects of alcohol on sensory phenomena, and cognitive and motor tasks. Q J Stud Alcohol 30:618–633, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lezak MD: Neuropsychological Assessment. New York, Oxford University Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lhermitte F, Signoret J-L: The amnesic syndrome and the hippocampal-mammillary system, in Rosenzweig MR, Bennett RL (eds): Neural Mechanisms of Learning and Memory. Cambridge, MIT Press, 1976, pp 49–56.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lishman WA: Organic Psychiatry. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1978.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lishman WA: Cerebral disorder in alcoholism: Syndromes of impairment. Brain 104:1–20, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Loberg T: Alcohol misuse and neuropsychological deficits in men. J Stud Alcohol 40:119–128, 1980.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Long JA, McLachlan JFC: Abstract reasoning and perceptual-motor efficiency in alcoholics: Impairments and reversibility. Q J Stud Alcohol 35:1220–1229, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Luria AR: Higher Cortical Functions in Man. New York, Basic Books, 1966.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mackintosh NJ: Conditioning and Associative Learning. New York, Oxford University Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    MacVane J, Butters N, Montgomery K, et al: Cognitive functioning in men social drinkers. J Stud Alcohol 43:81–95, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Maki WS, Riley DA, Leith CR: The role of test stimuli in matching to compound samples by pigeons. Anim Learn Behav 4:13–21, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Markowitsch HJ, Kessler J, Bast-Kessler C, et al: Different emotional tones significantly affect recognition performance in patients with Korsakoff psychosis. Int J Neurosci 25:145–159, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Matarazzo JD: Intellectual functioning in chronic alcoholism. J Clin Exp Psychiatry 40:13–23, 1979.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    McEntee WJ, Mair RG: Some behavioral consequences of neurochemical deficits in Korsakoff psychosis, in Squire LR, Butters N (eds): The Neuropsychology of Memory. New York, Guilford Press, 1984, pp 224–235.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Meissner WW: Learning and memory in the Korsakoff syndrome. Int J Neuropsychiatry 4:6–20, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Miglioli M, Buchtel HA, Campanini T, et al: Cerebral hemispheric lateralization of cognitive deficits due to alcoholism. J Nerv Ment Dis 167:212–217, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Moscovitch M: Multiple dissociations of function in amnesia, in Cermak LS (ed): Human Memory and Amnesia. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1982, pp 337–370.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Nebes RO: Hemispheric specialization in commissurotomized man. Psychol Bull 81:1–14, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Neisser U: Cognitive Psychology. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    O’Leary MR, Donovan DM, Chaney EF, et al: Application of discriminant analysis to level of performance of alcoholics and nonalcoholics on Wechsler-Bellevue and Halstead-Reitan subtests. J Clin Psychol 35:204–208, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Oscar-Berman M: Hypothesis testing and focusing behavior during concept formation by amnesic Korsakoff patients. Neuropsychologia 11:191–198, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Oscar-Berman M: Neuropsychological consequences of long-term chronic alcoholism. Am Sci 68:410–419, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Oscar-Berman M: Comparative neuropsychology and alcoholic Korsakoff’s disease, in Squire LR, Butters N (eds): Neuropsychology of Memory. New York, Guilford Press, 1984, pp 194–202.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Oscar-Berman M: Neuropsychological consequences of alcohol abuse: Questions, hypotheses, and models, in Parsons OA, Butters NM, Nathan P (eds): Neuropsychology of Alcoholism: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, Guilford Press (in press).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Oscar-Berman M, Bonner RT: Matching-and delayed-matching-to-sample performance as measures of visual processing, selective attention, and memory in aging and alcoholic individuals. Neuropsychologia 23:639–651, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Oscar-Berman M, Bonner RT: Nonmatching (oddity) and delayed nonmatching-to-sample performance in aging, alcoholic, and alcoholic Korsakoff individuals (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Oscar-Berman M, Gade A: Electrodermal measures of arousal in humans with cortical or subcortical brain damage, in Kimmel HD, van Olst EH, Orlebeke JF (eds): The Orienting Reflex in Humans. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1979, pp 665–676.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Oscar-Berman M, Samuels I: Stimulus-preference and memory factors in Korsakoff’s syndrome. Neuropsychologia 15:99–106, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Oscar-Berman M, Weinstein A: Visual processing, memory and lateralization in alcoholism and aging. Dev Neuropsychol 1:99–112, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Oscar-Berman M, Zola-Morgan SM: Comparative neuropsychology and Korsakoff’s syndrome. I: Spatial and visual reversal learning. Neuropsychologia 18:499–512, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Oscar-Berman M, Zola-Morgan SM: Comparative neuropsychology and Korsakoff’s syndrome. II: Two-choice visual discrimination learning. Neuropsychologia 18:513–526, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Oscar-Berman M, Goodglass H, Cherlow DG: Perceptual laterality and iconic recognition of visual materials by Korsakoff patients and normal adults. J Comp Physiol Psychol 82:316–321, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Oscar-Berman M, Sahakian BJ, Wikmark G: Spatial probability learning by alcoholic Korsakoff patients. J Exp Psychol Hum Learning Memory 2:215–222, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Oscar-Berman M, Heyman GM, Bonner RT, et al: Human neuropsychology: Some differences between Korsakoff and normal operant performance. Psychol Res 41:235–247, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Oscar-Berman M, Zola-Morgan SM, Öberg RGE, et al: Comparative neuropsychology and Korsakoff’s syndrome. III: Delayed response, delayed alternation and DRL performance. Neuropsychologia 20:187–202, 1932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Oscar-Berman M, Weinstein A, Wysocki D: Bimanual tactual discrimination in aging alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 7:398–403, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Parkinson S: The amnesic Korsakoff syndrome: A study of selective and divided attention. Neuropsychologia 17:67–75, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Parsons OA, Farr SP: The neuropsychology of alcohol and drug use, in Filskov SB, Boll TJ · (eds): Handbook of Clinical Neuropsychology. New York, Wiley-Interscience, 1981, pp 320–365.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Parsons OA, Leber WR: Premature aging, alcoholism, and recovery, in Wood WG, Elias MF (eds): Alcoholism and Aging: Advances in Research. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1982, pp 79–92.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Parsons OA, Tarter RE, Edelberg R: Altered motor control in chronic alcoholics. J Abnorm Psychol 80:308–314, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Parsons OA, Butters NM, Nathan P (eds): Neuropsychology of Alcoholism: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, Guilford Press (in press).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Evoked brain potential deficits in alcoholism and aging. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res 6:53–63, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Human brain electrophysiology and alcoholism, in Tarter R, van Thiel D (eds): Alcohol and the Brain. New York, Plenum Press, 1985, pp 139–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rhodes LE, Obitz FW, Creel D: Effect of alcohol and task on hemispheric asymmetry of visually evoked potentials in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neuropsychol 38:561–568, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Smith JW, Johnson LC, Burdick JA: Sleep, psychological, and clinical changes during alcohol withdrawal in NAD-treated alcoholics. Q J Stud Alcohol 32:982–994, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Stuss DT, Benson DF: Neuropsychological studies of the frontal lobes. Psychol Bull 95:3–28, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Talland GA: Deranged Memory. New York, Academic Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Talland GA, Sweet WH, Ballantine HT: Amnesic syndrome with anterior communicating artery aneurysm. J Nerv Ment Dis 145:179–192, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Tarter RE: Psychological deficit in chronic alcoholics: A review. Int J Addict 10:327–368, 1975.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tarter RE: Neuropsychological investigations of alcoholism, in Goldstein G, Neuringer C (eds): Empirical Studies of Alcoholism. Cambridge, MA, Ballinger, 1976, pp 231–256.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Tarter RE, Jones B: Absence of intellectual deterioration in chronic alcoholics. J Clin Psychol 27:453–454, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Tarter RE, Parsons OA: Conceptual shifting in chronic alcoholics. J Abnorm Psychol 77:71–75, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Victor M, Yakovlev PI: SS Korsakoff’s psychic disorder in conjunction with peripheral neuritis. A translation of Korsakoff’s original article with brief comments on the author and his contribution to clinical medicine. Neurology (Minneap.) 5:394–406, 1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Warren JM, Akert K: The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behavior. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1964.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wilkinson DA, Carlen PL: Morphological abnormalities in the brains of alcoholics: Relationship to age, psychological test scores and patient type, in Wood WG, Elias MF (eds): Alcoholism and Aging: Advances in Research. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1982, pp 61–77.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marlene Oscar-Berman
    • 1
  • Ronald J. Ellis
    • 2
  1. 1.Psychology Service, Boston Veterans Administration Medical Center, and Department of Neurology and Division of PsychiatryBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurology and Division of PsychiatryBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations