The Formation of Mesoderm and Muscle in Xenopus
The mesoderm is important in vertebrate development because it contributes cells to nearly all organs of the complete animal and because it emits signals which influence the differentiation of many other cells and tissues during development. The formation, function, and activities of the mesoderm have been more fully investigated in Xenopus than in any other organism. The conclusions which come from its study are therefore likely to be a guide to the understanding of equivalent tissues and activities in the other vertebrates.
KeywordsCommunity Effect Xenopus Embryo Notochord Cell Morphogen Gradient Developmental Fate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Dale, L. and Slack, J.M.W. (1987). Fate map for the 32-cell stage of Xenopus laevis. Develop. 99, 527–551.Google Scholar
- Gurdon, J.B., Harger, P., Mitchell, A. and Lemaire, P. (1994). Activin signalling and response to a morphogen gradient. Nature, in press.Google Scholar
- Holt, C.E., Lemaire, P. and Gurdon, J.B. (1994). Cadherin-mediated cell interactions are necessary for the activation of MyoD in Xenopus mesoderm. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US, in press.Google Scholar
- Jones, E.A. and Woodland, H.R. (1987). The development of animal cap cells in Xenopus: a measure of the start of animal cap competence to form mesoderm. Development 101, 557–563.Google Scholar
- Kimmelman, D., Christian, J.L. and Moon, R.T. (1992). Synergistic principles of development: overlapping patterning systems in Xenopus mesoderm induction. Development 116, 1–9.Google Scholar
- Smith, J.C., Dale, L. and Slack, J.M.W. (1985). Cell lineage labels and region-specific markers in the analysis of inductive interactions. J. Embryol. exp. Morph. Suppl. 89, 317–331.Google Scholar