The ultimate resolution of any imaging technique is limited to about the wavelength of the radiation which carries the information. For light, the wavelength is on the order of 500 nm. However, modern science demands information from samples at far higher resolution—in the limit, it would be ideal to image individual atomic positions in crystals, requiring a resolution of about 0.1 nm.
KeywordsScanning Transmission Electron Microscope Incident Electron Spherical Aberration Chromatic Aberration Pole Piece
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- Experimental High Resolution Electron Microscopy (2nd ed.), John C. H. Spence, Oxford University Press, 1988. As well as the subject matter implied by the title, this book presents a useful discussion of the design and operation of modern electron microscopes.Google Scholar
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- Principles of Analytical Electron Microscopy,edited by David C. Joy, Alton D. Romig, Jr., and Joseph I. Goldstein, Plenum Press, 1986. A useful text, but it tends to understate the potential of field-emission instruments. An earlier but still more widely available volume, Introduction to Analytical Electron Microscopy,edited by John J. Hren, Joseph I. Goldstein, and David C. Joy, Plenum Press, 1979, is significantly out-of-date, and is not recommended.Google Scholar
- Quantitative Electron Microscopy,edited by John N. Chapman and Alan J. Craven, SUSSP Publications, Department of Physics, University of Edinburgh, 1984. Written by the faculty of a NATO Advanced Study Institute, this is possibly the best all-around book on the subject, but is very difficult to find.Google Scholar
- Electron Microscopy of Thin Crystals (2nd ed.), P. B. Hirsch, A. Howie, R. B. Nicholson, D. W. Pashley, and M. J. Whelan, Kreiger Publishing Company, 1977. A very old text (the first edition was published in 1963), it has the major advantage of having been written by the workers principally responsible for the development of the field they describe. Although it is not current in terms of the performance of instrumentation, there is still no better source for the basic theory of the interaction of electrons with periodic samples.Google Scholar