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Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure in the Elderly

  • Gaspare Parrinello
  • Pietra Amato
  • Anna Licata
  • Salvatore Paterna
  • Antonio Pinto
  • Ligia J. Dominguez
  • Mario Barbagallo
  • Giuseppe Licata

Abstract

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a complex clinical syndrome which constitutes the epilogue of the natural history of virtually all heart diseases and in its advanced stages, has a poor prognosis. In the elderly, heart failure exhibits particular characteristics linked to the age-related alterations of cardiovascular system, to the association with other pathologies, to the atypical clinical presentation and to the increased iatrogenic risk. Heart failure now afflicts over 1% of the general population with nearly 1 in 10 elderly subjects affected, and the frequency of CHF is progressively increasing in most industrialized societies1,2. Further, CHF remains a significant cause of death and hospitalization especially among elderly populations. As such, 37,927 deaths and 722,000 hospital discharges were attributed to heart failure in 1990 (Fig. 1).3 Therefore, continued efforts are needed for the primary and secondary prevention of this syndrome.

Keywords

Heart Failure Congestive Heart Failure Idiopathic Dilate Cardiomyopathy Isosorbide Dinitrate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaspare Parrinello
    • 1
  • Pietra Amato
    • 1
  • Anna Licata
    • 1
  • Salvatore Paterna
    • 1
  • Antonio Pinto
    • 1
  • Ligia J. Dominguez
    • 1
  • Mario Barbagallo
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Licata
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Medicina InternaUniversity of PalermoItaly

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