Metabolic and Cardiovascular Manifestations of Hypertension in the Elderly

  • V. Rajkumar
  • Luis C. Afonso
  • Joel Steinberg
  • Stephen L. Farrow
  • James R. Sowers


Aging in industrialized societies is associated with an increasing prevalence of hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, renal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. This increase in chronic disease processes in industrialized societies is related, in part, to increasing obesity, reduced physical activity, medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and other environmental influences. Hypertension in the elderly is characterized by high peripheral vascular resistance, reduced baroreflex sensitivity, a low renin state with reduced cardiac output / increased hypertrophy, reduced intravascular volume, and an increased propensity to salt-sensitivity. Type II diabetes commonly accompanies hypertension in the elderly, in part related to reduction in lean body mass and relative increase in adiposity. Lipid abnormalities are also relatively common in the elderly and should generally be treated in a similar fashion to those in the middle-aged individual.


Estrogen Replacement Therapy Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease Isolate Systolic Hypertension Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial National High Blood Pressure 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Rajkumar
    • 1
  • Luis C. Afonso
    • 1
  • Joel Steinberg
    • 1
  • Stephen L. Farrow
    • 1
  • James R. Sowers
    • 1
  1. 1.Wayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA

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