Environmental Sources, Distribution, and Fate of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Related Organochlorines

  • Douglas R. Zook
  • Christoffer Rappe


The intent of this chapter is to bring to the reader an appreciation of polychlorinated dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) sources and to present general information regarding their subsequent environmental distribution, levels, and fate. This brief overview is intended to serve as an informative and up-to-date summary for the interested nonspecialist. Selected citations will be found to allow for further study of pertinent or representative literature up to early 1993. Factors that influence the passage of PCDD/F through the environment will be noted in an effort toward understanding how these substances are transported from their places of origin and transformed during deposition in the environment. Following deposition PCDD/F can come into contact with biological systems, including humans.


Pulp Mill Environmental Source Combustion Source Chlorine Dioxide Bleached Kraft Pulp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas R. Zook
    • 1
  • Christoffer Rappe
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental ChemistryUniversity of UmeåUmeåSweden

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