Between-Subjects Designs and Nonexperimental Methods
Between-subjects designs provide alternatives to within-subject strategies for arranging experimental conditions. As Kazdin (1982) points out, between-subjects designs are not favored by behavior analysts. Johnston and Pennypacker (1993b), for example, assert that between-subjects designs do not obtain useful information on functional relationships, nor do they result in findings that are meaningfully generalized to individuals who have not actually been studied. Criticisms of between-subjects approaches to research are based on the manner in which the independent variable is manipulated, how often dependent variables characteristically are measured, and how data usually are analyzed.
KeywordsPlacebo Obesity Nickel Cage Smoke
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