Algebraic Structure of Observables in Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics and Their Biological Significance
Thermodynamics, let alone nonequilibrium thermodynamics, is unique in employing a set of variables that are claimed to stand alone by themselves without letting the process of measurement intervene. Nevertheless, thermodynamic variables such as temperature and entropy are quantities that are measurable. The present dichotomy now suggests a subtle problem of whether a quantity that is theoretically proclaimed as being measurable could actually be measurable as such and if so, in what sense. In this regard, quantum mechanics provides a useful theoretical prototype in which the role of measurement is properly examined.
KeywordsQuantum State Energy Flow State Identification Measurement Dynamic Thermodynamic Variable
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