Attention-deficit disorders (ADD) can influence behavior, academic performance, and social and emotional adjustment. Problems in attention and concentration therefore should be considered routinely in the diagnostic evaluation of difficulties in school achievement. Unfortunately, many symptoms of ADD are relatively nonspecific; as a result, differential diagnosis is problematic. Attention deficits may co-occur, share common symptoms with, or overlap other disorders. Co-occurrence with oppositional/defiant and conduct disorders, anxiety/affective disorders, pica, Tourette syndrome, and learning disabilities is relatively frequent.1 In fact, approximately 50% of children with ADD manifest symptoms that warrant the diagnosis of oppositional disorder, 70% of those with Tourette syndrome have attention deficits, and the prevalence of ADD among patients with learning disabilities ranges from 10% to 40%.2 Symptoms similar to ADD often occur in mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders such as autism, and among patients with speech/language disorders.1


Attention Deficit Target Stimulus Tourette Syndrome Attention Problem Attention Deficit Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cantwell, D. P., and Baker, L., 1987, Differential diagnosis of hyperactivity, J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 8:159–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    August, G. J., and Garfinkel, B. D., 1989, Behavioral and cognitive subtypes of ADHD, J. Am. Acad. Child Adoles. Psychiat. 28:739–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cantwell, D. P., and Baker, L., 1991, Association between attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders, J. Learn. Dis. 24:88–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Psychiatric Association, 1987, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3 ed., revised), American Psychiatric Association, New York.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Schaughency, E. A., Atkins, M. S., Murphy, H. A., et al., 1988, Dimensions and types of attention deficit disorder, J. Am. Acad. Child Adoles. Psychiat. 27:330–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hinshaw, S. P, 1987, On the distinction between attention deficits/hyperactivity and conduct problems/aggression in child psychopathology, Psychol. Bull. 101:443–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hynd, G. W., Lorys, A. R., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Nieves, N., et al., 1991, Attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity: A distinct behavioral and neurocognitive syndrome, J. Child. Neurol. 6:37–42.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    August, G. J., and Garfinkel, B. D, 1990, Comorbidity of ADHD and reading disability among clinic-referred children, J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 18:29–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lahey, B. B., Schaughency, E. A., Hynd, G. W., Carlson, C. L., and Nieves, N., 1987, Attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: Comparison of behavioral characteristics of clinic-referred children, J. Am. Acad. Child Adoles. Psychiat. 26:718–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lahey, B. B., and Carlson, C. L., 1991, Validity of attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity: A review of the literature, J. Learn. Dis. 24:110–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kelly, D. P., and Aylward, G. P., 1992, Attention deficits in school aged children and adolescents: Current issues and practice, Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 39:487–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goodyear, H. P., and Hynd, G. W., 1992, Attention deficit disorder with (ADD/H) and without (ADD/WO) hyperactivity: Behavioral and neuropsychological differentiation, J. Clin. Child Psychol. 21:273–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Epstein, M. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., and Woolston, J. L., 1991, The boundaries of attention deficit disorder, J. Learn. Dis. 24:78–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Loney, J., and Milich, R., 1982, Hyperactivity, inattention, and aggression in clinical practice, Adv. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 3:113–147.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    American Psychiatric Association, 1994. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barkley, R. A., 1990, A critique of current diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Clinical and research implications, J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 11:343–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barkley, R. A., 1991, Diagnosis and assessment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, Comp. Ment. Health Care 1:27–43.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brown, R. T., 1982, Hyperactivity: Assessment and evaluation of rating instruments, J. Psychiatr. Treat. Eval. 4:359–369.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sleator, F. K., and Ullman, R.A., 1981, Can the physician diagnose hyperactivity in the office?, Pediatrics 67:13–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blondis, T. A., Accardo, P. J., and Snow, J. H., 1989, Measures of attention deficit. Part I. Questionnaires, Clin. Pediatr. 28:222–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Schnell, C., and Towle, V R., 1988, Concurrent and predictive validity of the Yale Children’s Inventory: An instrument to assess children with attention deficits and learning disabilities, Pediatrics 81:562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barkley, R. A., 1981, Hyperactive Children: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment, Guilford Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aylward, G. P., Verhulst, S. J., and Bell, S., 1990, Individual and combined effects of attention deficits and learning disabilities on computerized ADHD assessment, J. Psychoed. Assess. 8:497–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barkley, R. A., 1988, Attention, in: Assessment Issues in Child Neuropsychology (M. G. Tramontana and S. R. Hooper, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 145–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rosvold, H. E., Mirsky, A. E, Sarason, I., Bransome, E. D, and Beck, L. H., 1956, A continuous performance test of brain damage, J. Consult. Psychol. 20:343–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Conners, C. K., 1985, The computerized continuous performance test, Psychopharmacol. Bull 21:891–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gordon, M., 1983, The Gordon Diagnostic System, Gordon Systems, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Swanson, H. L., 1983, A developmental study of vigilance in learning-disabled children, J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 11:415–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Greenberg, L. M., 1991, The Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.), University Attention Disorders, Los Alamitos, CA.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Conners, C. K., 1992, Continuous Performance Test Manual, Multi-Health Systems, North Tonawanda, NY.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Conners, C. K., and Rothschild, G. H., 1968, Drugs and learning in children, in: Learning Disorders, Volume 3 (J. Hellmuth, ed.), Special Child Publications, Seattle, pp. 192–223.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Halperin, J. M., Sharma, V, Greenblatt, E., and Schwartz, S. T., 1991, Assessment of the continuous performance test: Reliability and validity in a nonreferred sample, Psychol. Assess. 3:603–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Aylward, G. P., Verhulst, S. J., Bell, S., Kelly, D, and Dorry, G., 1988, The relationship between the GDS and DSM-III diagnoses: Introduction of the Accuracy Index (AI), ADHD/Hyperact. Newslett. 11:2–4.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Halperin, J. M., Matier, K., Bedi, G., Sharma, V, and Newcorn, J. H., 1992, Specificity of inattention impulsivity, and hyperactivity to the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyper-activity disorder, J. Am. Acad. Child Adol. Psychiat. 31:190–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Solanto, M. V, and Conners, C. K., 1982, A dose-response and time-action analysis of autonomic and behavior effects of methylphenidate in attention deficit disorder with hyperactive children, Psychophysiology 19:658–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barkley, R. A., and Edelbrock, C., 1987, Assessing situational variation in children’s problem behaviors: The home and school situations questionnaires, in: Advances in Behavioral Assessment of Children and Families, Volume 3 (R. J. Prinz, ed.), JAI Press, Greenwich, CT, pp. 157–176.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Power, T. J., 1992, Contextual factors in vigilance testing of children with ADHD, J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 20:570–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kagan, J., 1965, Reflection-impulsivity: The generality and dynamics of conceptual tempo, J. Abnorm. Psychol 71:17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cairns, E., and Cammock, T., 1978, Development of a more reliable version of the “Matching Familiar Figures Test,”, Dev. Psychol. 14:555–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Karp, S. A., and Konstadt, N., 1987, Children’s Embedded Figures Test, Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Morgan, R. R., 1988, Children’s Embedded Figures Test, Test Corporation of America, Kansas City.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wechsler, D, 1974, Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Revised, The Psychological Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wechsler, D, 1991, The Wechsler Intelligence Scale-III Manual, The Psychological Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kaufman, A. S., 1979, Intelligent Testing With the WISC-R, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Weiss, L. G., 1991, WISC-III: The Revision of the WISC-R, Child Assess. News. 1:1–9.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wechsler, D., 1988, WPPSI-R Manual, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Thorndike, R. L., Hagan, E. P., and Sattler, J. M., 1986, Guide for Administering and Scoring the Fourth Edition Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Riverside Publishing, Chicago.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kaufman, A. S., and Kaufman, N. L., 1983, Interpretive Manual for the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, MN.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sheslow, D., and Adams, W, 1990, Wide-Range Assessment of Memory and Learning Administration Manual, Jastek Associates, Wilmington, DE.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Aylward, G. P., Verhulst, S. J., and Bell, S., 1992, Relationship between measures of memory and attention: ADD or LD? Paper presented at the 1992 Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Aylward, G. P, Verhulst, S. J., Bell, S., 1993, Interrelationships between measures of attention deficit disorders: Same scores, different reasons, J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 14:282.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Aylward, G. P., Kelly, D. P., Verhulst, S. J., and Bell, S., 1989, Diagnostic dilemmas in attention deficit disorders: Concordance between different assessment techniques, J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 10:274.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cohen, M. L., Kelly, P. C., and Atkinson, A. W, 1989, Parent, teacher, child: A trilateral approach to attention deficit disorder, Am. J. Dis. Child. 143:1229–1233.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Glen P. Aylward
    • 1
  1. 1.Southern Illinois University School of MedicineSpringfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations