Talking and Working Together
Psychologists, curriculum developers, and reformers of mathematics and science education recommend active learning in which students in small groups talk and work together. Small groups provide an opportunity for students to construct their own knowledge in a way that develops conceptual learning and higher-order thinking skills. Noddings (1989) sees this latter school of thought as originating in the work of Dewey and the social constructivism of Vygotsky (1978). Educators and researchers belonging to the “constructivist” school of thought assume that suitable discourse or conversation within the small groups and/or a process of discovery is a prerequisite for conceptual learning.
KeywordsCooperative Learning Group Task Conceptual Learning Direct Instruction Direct Supervision
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Cohen, B. P., Arechavala-Vargas, R. (1987). Interdependence, interaction and productivity. Working Paper 87–3. Stanford University, Stanford, CA: Center for Sociological Research.Google Scholar
- Cohen, B. P., Cohen, E. G. (1991). From groupwork among children to RD teams: Interdependence, interaction and productivity. Advances in Group Processes, Vol. 8, pp. 205–226. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
- Cohen, E. G. (1984). Talking and working together: Status interaction and learning. In P. Peterson, L. C. Wilkinson, M. Hallinan (Eds.), Instructional groups in the classroom: Organization and processes (pp. 171–188 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Cohen, E. G., Lotan, R., Morphew, C. (forthcoming). Beyond the workshop: Evidence from complex instruction. In C. Brody, N. Davidson, C. Cooper (Eds.), Professional development for cooperative learning. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Leechor, C. (1988). How high achieving and low achieving students differentially benefit from working together in cooperative small groups. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University.Google Scholar
- Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar