Effect of Physical/Chemical Stressors on the Cholinergic System in Rat

  • Satu M. Somani


Synaptic transmission is mediated by acetylcholine-neurotransmitter between preganglionic and post ganglionic nerve fibre in the sympathetic pathway and those sites that use this neurotransmitter are called cholinergic. The sites that use norepinephrine as neurotransmitter are called adrenergic. This presentation primarily concerns with cholinergic system. It is comprised of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its receptors (muscarinic and nicotinic) and enzymes involved for its synthesis - choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and degradation - acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The level of acetylcholine in the CNS is regulated by its anabolism through ChAT and catabolism through AChE. The neurotransmitters play an important role for human beings to adjust and adapt to any changes in their environment. Alterations in the central neurotransmitter system due to physical exercise and/or chemical Stressors have not received much attention. Of the few studies that have specifically examined biochemical markers of the brain cholinergic system, the two most frequently measured indices have been the biosynthetic enzyme of acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and the degradative enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE).


Exercise Training Endurance Training AChE Activity Cholinergic System Acute Exercise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Americ SP, Giuliano R., Ernsberger P, Underwood MD, and Reis DJ. Synthesis, release receptor binding of acetylcholine in the C1 area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla: contributions in regulation arterial pressure. Brain Res. 1990; 511: 98–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Babu SR, Somani SM, and Dube SN. Effect of physostigmine and exercise on choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities in fast and slow muscles of rat. Pharm. Biochem. and Behav. 1993; 45: 713–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benarroch EE, Granata AR, Ruggiero DA, Park OH, and Reis DJ. Neurons of C1 area mediate cardiovascular response initiated from ventral medullary surface. Am. J. Physiol. 1986; 250. R932–945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Clark DD and Sokoloff L. Circulation and energy metabolism of the brain. In: Basic Neurochemistry. Siegel GJ, Agranoff BW, Albers RW, and Molinoff, PB (Eds.) Raven Press 1993; 645-680.Google Scholar
  5. Dube, S.N., Somani SM, and Babu SR. Concurrent acute exercise alters central and peripheral responses to physostigmine. Pharm. Biochem. and Behav. 1993; 46: 827–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dube SN, Somani SM, and Colliver JA. Interactive effects of physostigmine and exercise on cholinesterase activity in RBC and tissues of rat. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 1990; 307: 71–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Eckstein FP, Baughman RW, and Quinn J. An anatomical study of cholinergic innervation in rat cerebral cortex. Neuroscience 1988; 25(2): 457–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fibiger HC. The organization and some projections of cholinergic neurons of the mammalian forebrain. Brain Res. Rev. 1982; 4: 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gilad GM, Rabey JM, and Shenkman L. Strain-dependent and stress-induced changes in rat hippocampal cholinergic system. Brain Res. 1983; 267: 171–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Godfrey DA, Park JL, and Ross C.D. Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in centrifugal labyrinthine bundles of rats. Hearing Res. 1984; 14: 93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gottesfeld Z, Kvetnansky R., Kopin IJ, and Jacobowitz DM. Effects of repeated immobilization stress on glutamate decarboxylase and choline acetyltransferase in discrete brain regions. Brain Res 1978; 152: 374–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Harri M., Dannenberg T, Oksanen-Rossi R., Hohtola E, and Sundin U. Related and unrelated changes in response to exercise and cold in rats: A reevaluation. J. Appl. Physiol: Respir. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 1984; 57: 1489–1497.Google Scholar
  13. Hata T, Kita T, Higash T, and Ichide S. Total acetylcholine content and activities of cholineacetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and duodenum of SART stressed (repeated cold stressed) rat. J. Pharmacol 1986; 41: 475–485.Google Scholar
  14. Holloszy JO and Booth W. Biochemical adaptations to endurance exercise in muscle. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 1976; 38: 273–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Holmstedt B. Distribution and determination of cholinesterase in mammals. Bull. WHO 1971; 44: 99–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Longoni R., Mulas A, Oderfeld-Novak B, Pepu IM, and Pepeu G. Effect of single and repeated electroshock applications on brain acetylcholine levels and choline acetyltransferase activity in the rat. Neuropharmacology 1976; 15: 283–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Oesch F. Trans-synaptic induction of choline acetyltransferase in the preganglionic neuron of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1974; 188: 439–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Pawlowska D, Moniuszko-Jankoniuk J, and Soltys M. Parathion-methyl effect on the activity of hydrolytic enzymes after single physical exercise in rats. Pol. J. Pharmacol. Pharm. 1985; 37: 629–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pedzikiewicz J, Piaskowska E, and Pytasz M. Acetylcholinesterase (E.C. in the skeletal muscle and brain of rats after exercise and long term training. Acta, physiol. pol. 1984; 35: 469–47.Google Scholar
  20. Roskoski R Jr, Mayer HE, and Schmid PG. Choline acetyltransferase activity in guinea-pig heart in vitro. J Neurochem. 1974; 23: 1197–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ross CD and Godfrey DA. Distributions of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities in layers of rat superior colliculus. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 1985; 33(7): 631–641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rossier J. Choline acetyltransferases: A review with special reference to its cellular and subcellular localization. Rev. Neurobiol. 1977; 20: 284–334.Google Scholar
  23. Ryhanen R., Kajovaara M., Harri M., Kaliste-Korhonen E. and Hanninen O. Physical exercise affects cholinesterases and organophosphate response. Gen. Pharmacol. 1988; 19: 815–818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Somani SM and Dube, SN. Endurance training changes central and peripheral responses to physostigmine. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1992; 41: 773–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Somani SM, Dube SN, Garcia V, Buckenmeyer P, Mandalaywala RH, Verhulst SJ, Knowlton RG. Influence of age on caloric expenditure during exercise. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. Toxicol. 1992; 30: 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Somani SM, Babu SR, Arneric S, and Dube SN. Effect of cholinesterase inhibitor and exercise on choline acetyltransferase and acetycholinesterase activities in rat brain regions. Pharmacol. Biochem. and Behav. 1991; 39: 337–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tucek S, Zelena J, Ge I, Vyskocil F. Choline acetyltransferase in transected nerves, denervated muscles and Schwann cells of the frog: Correlation of biochemical, electron microscopical and electrophysiological observations. Neurosciences 1978; 3: 709–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Turner N, Hale C., Lawler J, and Strong R. Modulation of tyrosin hydroxylase gene expression in the rat adrenal gland by exercise: Effects of age. Mol. Brain. Res. 1992; 14: 51–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vihko V, Salminen A, Rajamski J. Oxidation and lysosomal capacity in skeletal muscle of mice after endurance training of different intensities. Acta Physiol. Scand. 1978; 104: 74–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satu M. Somani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologySouthern Illinois University School of MedicineSpringfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations