Application of RFLPs in Systematics and Population Genetics of Aspergilli

  • James H. Croft
  • János Varga
Part of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies Symposium Series book series (FEMS, volume 69)


The classical methods for systematic studies of the genus Aspergillus have been very successful and have provided one of the better classifications among fungal genera. However, the genetic basis of a majority of characters used for these studies is not known and as a result the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships between taxa and even between most sections of the genus are uncertain since it is probable that some characters which carry a high taxonomic significance have only a low significance in phylogenetic and evolutionary terms. This is especially so for anamorphic taxa. Consequently, it is possible to argue that direct comparison of the nucleotide sequence and organisation of nucleic acids is likely to be the most sensitive discriminator between individuals and is most likely to indicate clearly their phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships.


Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Aspergillus Nidulans Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis Pectin Lyase Isoenzyme Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Al-Musallam, A. (1980) Revision of the black Aspergillus species. Ph.D. Thesis, Utrecht.Google Scholar
  2. Bainbridge, B.W., Spreadbury, C.L., Scalise, F.G. and Cohen, J. (1990) Improved methods for the preparation of high molecular weight DNA from large and small scale cultures of filamentous fungi. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 66, 113–118.Google Scholar
  3. Burnie, J.P., Coke, A. and Matthews, R.C. (1992) Restriction endonuclease analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA. J. Clin. Pathol. 45, 324–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coddington, A., Matthews, P.M., Cullis, C. and Smith, K.H. (1987) Restriction digest patterns of total DNA from different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi an improved method for race classification. J. Phytopathol. 118, 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Croft, J.H. (1987) Genetic variation and evolution in Aspergillus, in “Evolutionary biology of the fungi” (Rayner, A.D.M., Braiser, C.M. and Moore, D., Eds.), pp. 311–323. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  6. Croft, J.H. and Jinks, J.L. (1977) Aspects of the population genetics of Aspergillus nidulans, in “Genetics and physiology of Aspergillus” (Smith, J.E. and Pateman, J.A., Eds), pp. 339–360. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  7. Denning, D.W., Clemons, K.V., Hanson, L.H. and Stevens, D.A. (1990) Restriction endonuclease analysis of total cellular DNA of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates of geographically and epidemiologically diverse origin. J. Infect. Dis. 162, 1151–1158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Denning, D.W., Shankland, G.S. and Stevens, D.A. (1991) DNA fingerprinting of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from patients with aspergilloma. J. Med. Veter. Mycol. 29, 339–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Frisvad, J.C. and Samson, R.A. (1990) Chemotaxonomy and morphology of Aspergillus fumigatus and related taxa, in “Modern concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus classification”(Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.L., Eds.), pp. 201–208. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Gabal, M.A. (1989) Development of a chromosomal DNA probe for the laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis. Mycopathologia 106, 121–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gams, W., Christensen, M., Onions, A.H.S., Pitt, J.I. and Samson, R.A. (1985) Infrageneric taxa of Aspergillus, in “Advances in Penicillium and Aspergillus systematics” (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds.), pp. 55–61. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Gniadkowski, M., Fiett, J., Borsuk, P., HoffmanZacharska, D., Stepien, P.P. and Bartnik, E.(1991) Structure and evolution of 5S rRNA genes and pseudogenes in the genusAspergillus. J. Mol. Evol. 33, 175–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gomi, K., Tanaka, A., Limura, Y. and Takahashi, K. (1989) Rapid differentiation of four related species of koji moulds byagarosegel electrophoresis of genomic DNA digested with SmaI restriction enzyme. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 35, 225–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gusella, J.F. (1986) DNA polymorphism and human disease. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 55, 831–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jadayel, D.M. (1986) Variation in the organization and structure of the mitochondrial DNA of species of Aspergillus. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Birmingham, UK.Google Scholar
  16. Kirimura, K., Fukuda, S., Abe, H., Kanayama, S. and Usami, S. (1992a) Physical mapping of the mitochondrial DNA from Aspergillus niger. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 90, 235–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kirimura, K., Fukuda, S., Sarngbin, S., Kanayama, S. and Usami, S. (1992b) The mitochondrial genome of Aspergillus niger. Abstracts of 1st European Conference on Fungal Genetics, Nottingham, Pl/02.Google Scholar
  18. Klich, M.A. and Mullaney, E.J. (1987) DNA restriction enzyme fragment polymorphism as a tool for rapid differentiation of Aspergillus flavus from Aspergillus oryzae. Exp. Mycol. 11, 170–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kozlowski, M. and Stepien, P.P. (1982) Restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial DNA of members of the genus Aspergillus as an aid in taxonomy. J. Gen. Microbiol. 128, 471–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kusters-van Someren, M.A., Kester, H.C.M., Samson, R.A. and Visser, J. (1990) Variation in pectinolytic enzymes in black Aspergilli: a biochemical and genetic approach, in “Modern concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus classification” (Samson, R.A. and Pitt, J.I., Eds.), pp.321–334. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Kusters-van Someren, M.A., Samson, R.A. and Visser, J. (1991) The use of RFLP analysis in classification of the black Aspergilli: reinterpretation of Aspergillus niger aggregate. Curr. Genet. 19, 21–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. MacCabe, A.P., Riach, M.B.R., Unkles, S.E. and Kinghorn, J.R. (1990) The Aspergillus nidulans npeA locus consists of three contiguous genes required for penicillin biosynthesis. EMBO J. 9, 279–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mégnégneau, B., Debets, F. and Hoekstra, R.F. (1993) Genetic variability and relatedness in the complex group of black Aspergilli based on random amplification of polymorphic DNA. Curr. Genet. 23, 323–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moody, S.F. and Tyler, B.M. (1990a) Restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial DNA of the Aspergillus flavus group: A. flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 2441–2452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Moody, S.F. and Tyler, B.M. (1990b) Use of nuclear DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms to analyze the diversity of the Aspergillus flavus group: A. flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 2453–2461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Mullaney, E.J. (1993) Survey of the Aspergillus niger group for DNA sequences cross hybridizing to the five prime region of the fungal phytase gene. Mycologia 85, 71–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mullaney, E.J. and Klich, M.A. (1987) Survey of representative species of Aspergillus for regions of DNA homology to Aspergillus nidulans developmental genes. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25, 476–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Panabiéres, F., Marais, A., Trentin, F., Bonnet, P. and Ricci, P. (1989) Repetitive DNA polymorphism analysis as a tool for identifying Phytophtora species. Phytopathol 79, 1105–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Peterson, S.W. (1992) Neosartorya pseudofisc heri sp. nov. and its relationship to other species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. Mycol. Res. 96, 547–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ráper, K.B. and Fennell, D.I. (1965) “The genus Aspergillus.” Williams & Wilkins: Baltimore.Google Scholar
  31. Scherer, S. and Stevens, D.A. (1987) Application of DNA typing methods to epidemiology and taxonomy of Candida species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25, 675–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Scherer, S. and Stevens, D.A. (1988) A Candida albicans dispersed, repeated gene family and its epidemiologic applications. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 85, 1452–1456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Smith, R.A., Hitchcock, C.A., Evans, E.G.V., Lacey, C.J.N. and Adams, D.J. (1989) The identification of Candida albicans strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of DNA. J. Med. Veter. Mycol. 27, 431–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Spitzer, E.D., Lasker, B.A., Travis, S.J., Kobayashi, G.S. and Medoff, G. 1989) Use of mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA polymorphisms to classify clinical and soil isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum. Infect. Immun. 57, 1409–1412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Spreadbury, C.L., Bainbridge, B.W. and Cohen, J. (1990) Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus probed with part of the intergenic spacer region from the ribosomal RNA gene complex of Aspergillus nidulans. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136, 1991–1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sugiyama, J., Rahayu, E.S., Chang, J.-M. and Oyaizu, H. (1991) Chemotaxonomy of Aspergillus and associated teleomorphs. Jpn. J. Med. Mycol. 32, Suppl. 39–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Varga, J. and Rinyu, E. (1991) Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus strains by isoenzyme analysis. Acta Microbiol. Hung. 38, 225.Google Scholar
  38. Varga, J., Kevei, F., Fekete, Cs., Coenen, A., Kozakiewicz, Z and Croft, J.H. (1993) Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the mitochondrial DNAs of the Aspergillus niger aggregate. Mycol. Res. 97, 1207–1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • James H. Croft
    • 1
  • János Varga
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyAttila József UniversitySzegedHungary

Personalised recommendations