Personality, Social Control, and Drug Use in Early Adolescence
Sociological theories of crime and delinquency have been criticized for failing to take into account biological and personality factors that may predispose people to antisocial behavior (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1989; Wilson & Herrnstein, 1985). According to these critics, dispositional differences produced by heredity, environmental conditions (e.g., nutrition and lead exposure), and parental behavior emerge and are identifiable in early childhood. It is charged that criminologists who fail to take these dispositional characteristics into account may exaggerate the importance of later social experiences in their explanations of delinquency and crime. Differential association and bonding theories, in particular, have been criticized in this regard.
KeywordsCovariance Income Cocaine Caffeine Smoke
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