Selected Organic Brain Syndromes

  • Jack R. Cornelius

Abstract

Organic brain syndromes (OBSs) are a heterogeneous group that exhibit a wide range of symptoms. Thus, OBS may mimic a variety of “functional” disorders. For example, the primary symptom complex in the various OBSs may include global cognitive impairment, selected cognitive deficits, psychotic and affective symptoms, personality abnormalities, or alcohol-and substance-related disorders. No single collection of behavioral symptoms is pathognomonic of all OBSs. It can be difficult to distinguish OBSs from functional psychiatric disorders on the basis of psychiatric symptoms alone (Hall, Popkin, DeVaul, Faillace, & Stickney, 1978). The third edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III; APA, 1980) describes the essential feature of OBS as a psychological or behavioral abnormality associated with brain dysfunction. This cerebral dysfunction may be either primary brain dysfunction or a secondary abnormality, such as one caused by a toxic agent or metabolic abnormality. The dysfunction must be demonstrated by the patient’s medical history, physical exam or laboratory tests and must be etiologically related to his or her psychiatric symptoms.

Keywords

Lithium Influenza Cocaine Folate Hydrocephalus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, R. D., & Victor, M. (1985). Principles of neurology. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1952). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (1st ed.; DSMI). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1968). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 2nd ed.; DSM-II). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd ed.; DSM-III). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (1985). DSM-III-R in Development. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, W. H. (1979). Depression. In: A. Lazare (Ed.), Outpatient psychiatry (pp. 257–260 ). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  7. Ayd, F. J. (1978). Haloperidol: Twenty years clinical experience. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 39, 807–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baldessarini, R. J. (1980). Drugs and the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In: A. G. Gilman, L. S. Goodman, & A. Gilman (Eds.), The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (pp. 391–447 ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Ban, T. A. (1976). Psychopathology, psychopharmacology, and the organic brain syndromes. Psychosomatics, 17, 131–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Burns, R. S., & Lerner, S. E. (1976). Management and treatment of acute phencyclidine intoxications. In: P. G. Bourne (Ed.), Acute drug abuse emergencies (pp. 297–306 ). Washington, DC: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cornelius, J. R., Soloff, P. H., & Reynolds, C. F. (1984). Paranoia, homicidal behavior, and seizures associated with phenylpropanolamine. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 120–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cornelius, J. R., Payton, J. B., & McGonigle, J. J. (1985). Overanxious disorder with FDPase deficiency and developmental disability. Psychosomatics, 26, 680–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cornelius, J. R., Soloff, P. H., & Miewald, B. K. (1986). Behavioral manifestations of paraneoplastic encephalopathy. Biological Psychiatry, 21, 686–690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cummings, J. L. (1985). Organic delusions: Phenomenology, anatomical correlations, and review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 184–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cummings, J. L., & Mendez, M. F. (1984). Secondary mania with focal cerebrovascular lesions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 1084–1087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Davison, K. (1983). Schizophrenia-like psychoses associated with organic cerebral disorders: A review. Psychiatric Developments, 1, 1–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Davison, K., & Bagley, C. R. (1969). Schizophrenic-like psychoses associated with organic disorders of the central nervous system: A review of the literature. British Journal of Psychiatry, 4, 113–184.Google Scholar
  18. Detre, T. P., & Jarecki, H. G. (1971). Modern psychiatric treatment. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  19. DeVaul, R. A., & Hall, R. C. (1980). Hallucinations. In: C. W. Hall (Ed.), Psychiatric presentations of medical illness (pp. 91–103 ). Jamaica, NY: Spectrum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Editorial (1977). Sedation in liver disease. British Medical Journal, 1, 1241–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ellinwood, E. H. (1976). Emergency treatment of acute adverse reactions to CNS stimulants. In: P. G. Boume (Ed.), Acute drug abuse emergencies (pp. 115–138 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  22. Fauman, M. A. (1983). The emergency psychiatric evaluation of organic mental disorders. Emergency Psychiatry, 6, 233–257.Google Scholar
  23. Gabel, R. H., Barnard, N., Norko, M., & O’Connell, R. A. (1986). AIDS presenting as mania. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 27, 251–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goodwin, F. K., & Bunney, W. E. (1971). Depressions following reserpine: A re-evaluation. Seminars in Psychiatry, 3, 435–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hall, R. C., Popkin, M. K., DeVaul, R. A., Faillace, L. A., & Stickney, S. K. (1978). Physical illness presenting as psychiatric disease. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 1315–1320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hall, R. C. W. (1980a). Anxiety. In: R. C. W. Hall (Ed.), Psychiatric presentations of medical illness (pp. 13–35 ). Jamaica, NY: Spectrum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hall, R. C. W. (1980b). Depression. In: R. C. W. Hall (Ed.), Psychiatric presentations of medical illness (pp. 37–63 ). Jamaica, NY: Spectrum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hartmann, E. (1975). Dreams and other hallucinations: An approach to the underlying mechanism. In: R. K. Siegel & L. J. West (Eds.), Hallucinations (pp. 71–80 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Heller, S. S. (1976). The organic patient and medical problems. In: R. A. Glick, A. T. Meyerson, E. Robbins, & J. A. Talbott (Eds.), Psychiatric emergencies (pp. 135–146 ). New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  30. Herridge, C. F. (1960). Physical disorders in psychiatric illness. The Lancet, 2, 949–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johnson, J. (1969). Organic psychosyndromes due to boxing. British Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 45–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kermani, E. J., Borod, J. C., Brown, P. H., & Tunnell, G. (1985). New psychopathologic findings in AIDS: Case report. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 46, 240–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kiely, W. F. (1976). Psychiatric syndromes in critically ill patients. Journal of the American Medical Association, 235, 2759–2761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Klein, D. F., Gittelman, R., Quitkin, F., & Rifkin, A. (1980). Diagnosis and drug treatment of psychiatric disorders: Adults and children. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  35. Koranyi, E. K. (1979). Morbidity and rate of undiagnosed physical illnesses in a psychiatric clinic population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 414–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Krauthammer, C., & Klerman, G. L. (1978). Secondary mania. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 1333–1339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lezak, M. D. (1978). Living with the characterologically altered brain injured patient. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 39, 592–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Lipowski, Z. J. (1980a). Delirium. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  39. Lipowski, Z. J. (1980b). A new look at organic brain syndromes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 674–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lipowski, Z. J. (1980c). Organic mental disorders. In: H. I. Kaplan, A. M. Freedman, & B. J. Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (Vol. 3 ) (pp. 1359–1392 ). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  41. Lipowski, Z. J. (1985). Delirium (acute confusional state). In: J. A. M. Frederiks (Ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology (pp. 523–559 ). New York: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  42. Lishman, W. A. (1978). Organic psychiatry. Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  43. Mackenzie, T. B., & Popkin, M. K. (1983). Organic anxiety syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 342–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Malamud, N., & Skillicorn, S. A. (1956). Relationship between the Werniche and the Korsakoff syndrome. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 76, 585–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Man, P. L., & Chen, C. H. (1973). Rapid tranquilization of acutely psychotic patients with intramuscular haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Psychosomatics, 14, 59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Mapelli, G., & Bellelli, T. (1982). Letter to the editor. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 7–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Moore, D. P. (1977). Rapid treatment of delirium in critically ill patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 1431–1432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Reeves, A. G., & Plum, F. (1969). Hyperphagia, rage, and dementia accompanying a ventromedial hypothalamic neoplasm. Archives of Neurology, 20, 616–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rosenbaum, A. H., & Barry, M. J. (1975). Positive therapeutic response to lithium in hypomania secondary to organic brain syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 1072–1073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Rosenbaum, J. F. (1979). Anxiety. In: A. Lazare (Ed.), Outpatient psychiatry (pp. 252–256 ). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  51. Siegel, R. K., & Jarvik, M. E. (1975). Drug-induced hallucinations in animals and man. In: R. K. Siegel & L. J. West (Eds.), Hallucinations (pp. 81–161 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  52. Stasiek, C., & Zetin, M. (1985). Organic manic disorders. Psychosomatics, 26, 394–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Storey, P. B. (1970). Brain damage and personality change after subarachnoid hemorrhage. British Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 129–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs: A review of the literature. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172, 577–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Talbott, J. A. (1976). Emergency management of marijuana psychosis. In: P. G. Bourne (Ed.), Acute drug abuse emergencies (pp. 153–161 ). Washington, DC: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Task Force, National Institute of Mental Health. (1976). Research in the service of mental health. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  57. Thompson, W. L., Johnson, A. D., & Maddey, W. L. (1975). Diazepam and paraldehyde for treatment of severe delirium tremens. Annals of Internal Medicine, 82, 175–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Victor, M., & Adams, R. D. (1983). Deficiency diseases of the nervous system. In: R. G. Petersdorf, R. D. Adams, E. Braunwald, & J. D. Wilson (Eds.), Harrison’s principles of internal medicine (pp. 2112–2118 ). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  59. Victor, M., Adams, R. D., & Collins, G. H. (1971). The Werniche-Korsakoff syndrome. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.Google Scholar
  60. Villani, S., & Weitzel, W. D. (1979). Letter to the editor. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 10–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Whitlock, F. A. (1982). Symptomatic affective disorders. Sydney, Australia: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  62. Whitty, C. W. M., & Zangwill, O. L. (1966). Amnesia. London: Butterworths.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack R. Cornelius
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations