Nutrient Utilization and Growth in LBW Infants

  • William C. Heird
  • Sudha Kashyap
  • Karl F. Schulze
  • Rajasekhar Ramakrishnan
  • Christine L. Zucker
  • Ralph B. Dell

Abstract

Over the past decade, a number of studies concerning growth, nutrient retention and metabolic response of low birth weight (LBW) infants fed a variety of formulas as well as a variety of human milk preparations have been reported (1–21). These studies, in toto, provide important insights concerning both the nutrient requirements of LBW infants and the utilization of nutrients for growth. Some of the insights in both areas will be illustrated in this chapter, using primarily the authors’ studies (21–23) as examples. These studies have the advantage of familiarity and, also, are among the few such studies in which protein and energy intakes were varied independently.

Keywords

Cholesterol Obesity Phosphorus Magnesium Albumin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    O.G. Brooke, C. Wood and J. Barley, Energy Balance, Nitrogen Balance and Growth in Preterm Infants Fed Expressed Breast Milk, a Premature Infant Formula, and Two Low-Solute Adapted Formulae, Arch. Dis. Child. 57:898 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. Catzeflis, Y. Schutz, J.L. Micheli, C. Welsch, M.J. Arnaud and E. Jequier, Whole Body Protein Synthesis and Energy Expenditure in Very Low Birth Weight Infant, Pediatr. Res 19:679 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Chessex, B.L. Reichman, G.J.E. Verellen, G. Putet, J.M. Smith, T. Heim and P.R. Swyer, Influence of Postnatal Age, Energy Intake, and Weight Gain on Energy Metabolism in the Very Low Birth Weight Infant, J. Pediatr. 99:761 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Darling, G. Lepage, P. Tremblay, S. Collet, L.C. Kien and C.C. Roy, Protein Quality and Quantity in Preterm Infants Receiving the Same Energy Intake, Am. J. Dis. Child. 139:186 (1985).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T.J. French, M. Colbeck, D. Burman, B.D. Speidel and R.A. Hendey, A Modified Cows’ Milk Formula Suitable for Low Birth Weight Infants, Arch. Dis. Child. 57:507 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Freymond, Y. Schutz, J. Decombaz, J.L. Micheli and E Jequier, Energy Balance, Physical Activity, and Thermogenic Effect of Feeding in Premature Infants, Pediatr. Res. 20:638 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S.J. Gross, Growth and Biochemical Response of Preterm Infants Fed Human Milk or Modified Infant Formula, N. Eng. J. Med. 308:237 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.K. Huston, J.W. Reynolds, C. Jensen and R.M. Buis, Nutrient and Mineral Retention and Vitamin D Absorption in Low Birth Weight Infants: Effect of Medium Chain Triglyceride, Pediatr. 72:44 (1983).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.K. Rassin, G.E. Gaull, A.L. Jarvenpaa and N.C.R. Raiha, Feeding the Low Birth Weight Infant: II. Effects of Taurine and Cholesterol Supplementation on Amino Acids and Cholesterol, Pediatr. 71:179 (1983).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Lucas, S.M. Gore, T.J. Cole, M.F. Bamford, J.F.B. Dossetor, I Barr, L. Dicarlo, S. Cork and P.J. Lucas, Multicentre Trial on Feeding Low Birth weight Infants: Effects of Diet on Early Growth, Arch. Dis. Child. 59:702 (1984).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Okamoto, C.R. Muttart, C.L. Zucker and W.C. Heird, Use of Medium Chain Triglycerides in Feeding Low Birth Weight Infants, Am. J. Dis. Child. 136:428 (1982).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. Putet, J. Senterre, J. Rigo and B. Salle, Nutrient Balance, Energy Utilization, and Composition of Weight Gain in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Fed Pooled Human Milk or a Preterm Formula, J. Pediatr. 105:79 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    N.C.R. Raiha, K. Heinonen, D.K. Rassin and G.E. Gaull, Milk Protein Quantity and Quality in Low Birth Weight Infants. I. Metabolic Responses and Effects on Growth, Pediatr. 57:659 (1976).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. Reichman, P. Chessex, G. Verellen, G. Putet, J.M. Smith, T. Heim and P.R. Swyer, Dietary Composition and Macronutrient Storage in Preterm Infants, Pediatr. 72:322 (1983).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.B. Roberts and A. Lucas, The Effects of Two Extremes of Dietary Intake on Protein Accretion in Preterm Infants, Early Hum. Dev. 12:301 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R.J. Schanler, C. Garza and B.L. Nichols, Fortified Mothers’ Milk For Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Results of Growth and Nutrient Balance Studies, J. Pediatr. 107:437 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P.J. Shenai, J.W. Reynolds and S.G. Babson, Nutritional Balance Studies in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Enhanced Nutrient Retention Rates by an Experimental Formula, Pediatr. 66:233 (1980).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    N.W. Svenningsen, M. Lindroth and B. Lindquist, Growth in Relation to Protein Intake of Low Birth Weight Infants, Early Hum. Dev. 6:47 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.E. Tyson, R.E. Kasky, C.E. Mize, C.J. Richards, N. Blair-Smith, R. Whyte and A.E. Beer, Growth Metabolic Response and Development in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Fed Banked Human Milk or Enriched Formula: I. Neonatal Findings, J. Pediatr. 103:95 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R.K. Whyte, R. Haslam, C. Vlainic, S. Shannon, K. Samulski, D. Campbell, HS. Bayley and J.C. Sinclair, Energy Balance and Nitrogen Balance in Growing Low Birth weight Infants Fed Human Milk or Formula, Pediatr. Res. 17:891 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Kashyap, M. Forsyth, C. Zucker, R. Ramakrishnan, R.B. Dell and W.C. Heird, Effects of Varying Protein and Energy Intakes on Growth and Metabolic Response in Low Birth Weight Infants, J. Pediatr. 108:955 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Kashyap, K.F. Schulze, M. Forsyth, C. Zucker, R. Ramakrishnan, R.B. Dell and W.C. Heird, Effects of Varying Protein and Energy Intakes on Growth, Nutrient Retention and Metabolic Response of Low Birth Weight Infants, J. Pediatr. (Submitted, 1986).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K.F. Schulze, M. Stefanski, J. Masterson, R. Spinnazola, R. Ramakrishnan, R.B. Dell and W.C. Heird, Energy Expenditure, Energy Balance and Composition of Weight Gain in Low Birth Weight Infants Fed Diets of Different Protein and Energy Content, J. Pediatr. In press (1987).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. Danforth, Diet and Obesity, Am. J. Clin.Nutr. 41:1132 (1985).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    E.E. Ziegler, A.M. O’Donnel, S.E. Nelson and S.J. Fomon, Body Composition of the Reference Fetus, Growth. 40:329 (1976).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Kashyap, M. Forsyth, C. Zucker, R.B. Dell and W.C. Heird, Relationship between Nitrogen(N) Retention and Retention of Electrolytes and Minerals in Low Birth Weight(LWB) Infants, Pediatr. Res. 20:413A (1986).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.W.T. Dickerson, Changes in Composition of the Human Femur During Growth, Biochem. J. 82:56 (1962).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Rudman, W.J. Millikan, T.J. Richardson, T.J. Bixler, W.J. Stockhouse and W.C. McGarrity, Elemental Balances During Intravenous Hyperalimentation of Underweight Adult Subjects, J. Clin. Invest. 55:94 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    W.C. Heird, Unpublished Data.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Kashyap, K.F. Schulze, M. Forsyth, C. Zucker, R. Ramakrishnan, R.B. Dell and W.C. Heird, Growth, Nutrient Retention and Metabolic Response of Low Birth Weight Infants Fed Different Preparations of Human Milk, J. Pediatr. (Submitted, 1986).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • William C. Heird
    • 1
  • Sudha Kashyap
    • 1
  • Karl F. Schulze
    • 1
  • Rajasekhar Ramakrishnan
    • 1
  • Christine L. Zucker
    • 1
  • Ralph B. Dell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsCollege of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations