A variety of conceptual models have been developed to explain the formation and resultant symptomatic picture of PTSD. Within the field of trauma research the information-processing model advocated by Horowitz (1973, 1974, 1976, 1979), the psychosocial framework outlined by Green, Wilson, and Lindy (1985), and the behavioral/learning theory model suggested by Keane et al. (1985) have been the most influential. Various psychodynamic models put forward (“classical,” Eriksonian, and object relations theory) have contributed toward a greater understanding of PTSD as it pertains to the individual and his/her internal functioning. Current psychophysiologic and psychobiologic models of PTSD are also the subject of much interest. Shultz’s (1984) cybernetic model of PTSD brings a systems understanding to the disorder.
KeywordsDepression Dopamine Assimilation Norepinephrine Posit
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- 7.A more complete treatment goal would be to initiate an adaptive deviation-amplification circuitGoogle Scholar
- 8.Several variables will not be discussed in any detail, because we have nothing new to contribute. These include Post-traumatic cognitive processing, the recovery environment, and individual characteristics.Google Scholar