Peer Relations in Early and Middle Childhood

  • Willard W. Hartup
Part of the Perspectives in Developmental Psychology book series (PDPS)


Child-child interaction is essentially egalitarian. Some relationships between children are more egalitarian than others, but peer relations are generally understood by children to be structured horizontally rather than vertically. The egalitarian nature of the social exchanges that occur between children and other children distinguish them clearly from the exchanges that occur between children and adults (Furman & Buhmester, 1985; Youniss, 1980).


Child Development Preschool Child Middle Childhood Social Reputation Sociometric Status 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Willard W. Hartup
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Child DevelopmentUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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