The Requirements for Nondestructive Characterization in the Tire and Rubber Industry
The pneumatic tire is a toroidal, high performance polymeric composite, which exhibits characteristics of a flexible-membrane pressure container providing load carrying capability, cushioning, and road handling abilities. It transmits driving and braking torque, cornering forces, and performs all functions essential to locomotion. These features can be attributed to its deformability and damping characteristics. The pneumatic tire is a complex system of interacting composites, each with specific properties for maximum effectiveness.1 Figure 1 is a schematic of the Goodyear Eagle GT+4 All Season high performance radial passenger tire. Each individual composite in the tire is different from its neighbor in terms of content, properties, shape, and function. Individual composites contain combinations of various synthetic and natural rubbers, reinforcing fillers, steel wire, fabric, sulfur, curatives, and antidegradant materials.2 Some of these are listed in Table 1.
KeywordsZinc Anisotropy Torque Steam Mold
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Bhakuni, R S, et al, “Tires”, Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering, Vol 16, 2nd ed, John Wiley, 1989.Google Scholar
- 2.Bhakuni, R S, et al, “Pneumatic Tire Compounding”, The Vanderbilt Rubber Handbook, Robert Ohm (ed), RT Vanderbilt, Inc, Norwalk, 1990.Google Scholar
- 3.Halasa, A F, et al, “SIBR for High Performance Tires”, Rubber and Plastic News, in press.Google Scholar
- 5.Chang, C C, et al, “Modeling Studies of the Controlled Anionic Co-Polymerization of Butadiene and Styrene”, ACS Rubber Division, 137th Meeting, Las Vegas, May 30, 1990.Google Scholar
- 6.Imai, M, “Kaizen”, Random House Business Division, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
- 7.Miller, J W, Jr and A J Bur, “Report on the Working Group on Polymer Processing”, Intelligent Processing of Materials, NISTIR 89-4024, US Department of Commerce, January 1989.Google Scholar
- 8.Yolken, H T and L Mordfin, “Intelligent Processing of Materials — Report of an Industrial Workshop Conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology”, NISTIR 89-4024, US Department of Commerce, January 1989.Google Scholar
- 9.Yeh, JTY, “Online Composition Analyzers”, Chemical Engineering, January 20, 1986.Google Scholar
- 10.MacGregor, J F, et al, “Dynamic Modeling of Emulsion Polymerization Reactors: A Review”, AIChE National Meeting, Philadelphia, August 12, 1984.Google Scholar
- 11.Johnson, P S, “Mixing Equipment and the Mixing Process”, Basic Compounding and Processing of Rubber, Harry Long (ed), Rubber Division, ACS, Inc., 1985.Google Scholar
- 12.Embleton, W T, “The Measurex 2002 Wire Calender System Sensor Package”, RU7533/4M/10-85/W Coast.Google Scholar