Advertisement

Biomedical Use of Arsenic Radioisotopes

  • Ali M. Emran
  • Dennis R. Phillips

Abstract

The availability of several radioisotopes of arsenic allows for their use as tracers in biochemical, environmental and medical applications. The versatility of arsenic to be incorporated into various chemical structures, and the existence of a wide array of arsenic compounds with established chemistries, permit the synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals with potential utility in therapy and diagnosis of numerous disease states. The current goals of several investigators are to establish methods of routine production and purification of selected arsenic radioisotopes, and to develop synthetic pathways for labeling compounds useful in medical and toxicological research.

Keywords

Arsenic Trioxide Sodium Arsenite Sodium Arsenate Anodic Strip Voltammetry Arsenic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. A. Schroeder and J. J. Balassa, J. Chronic. Dis. 19: 85 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Brock, Nature, 195: 841 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press 19.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. S. Goldsmith, Infectious Disease: Protozoal, it “Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment, M. A. Krupp and M.J. Chatton, eds., Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, California (1979).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Sollmann, “Manual of Pharmacology,” W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia (1957).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. H. Banks, J. R. Daniel, and R. A. Zingaro, J. Medicinal Chem. 22: 572 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. M. Swann, Cancer Res. 17: 727 (1957).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Proceedings of Arsenic Symposium, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1981.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. O. Coak, L. D. Freedman, “Organometallic Compounds of Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth,” Dictmar Seyferth, ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York (1970).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Dub, ed., Organometallic Compounds: Vol. III; Compounds of Arsenic, Antimony, and Bismuth, 2nd edition, Springer-Verlag, Inc., New York (1968).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. M. Smith, ed, “Porphyrins and Metalloporphyrins,” Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., New York (1975).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. Hosain, P. K. Sripada, P. Hosain, A. Emran, and R. P. Spencer, Substitution of Arsenic for Phosphorus, La: “Radiopharmaceuticals: Structure Activity Relationships,” R. P. Spencer, ed., Grune and Straton, New York (1981).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Goetz and H. Norin, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. !sot, 34 (11): 1509 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. M. Emran, N. M. Shanbaky, and R. P. Spencer, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. ‘sot. 37: 545 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Heydorn, Chin. Chem.-Acta 28: 349, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. D. Hood and S. L. Bishop, Arch. Environ. Health 24: 62 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. R. Byron, G. W. Bierbauer, J. B. Brouyer, and W. H. Hansen, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 16: 132 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    B. D. Obermeyer, I. S. Palmer, O. E. Olson, and A. W. Halverson, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 20: 135 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. A. Patty, Arsenic, Phosphorus, Selenium, Sulfur, and Tellurium, in “Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology,” D. W. Fassett and D. D. Irish, eds., Interscience, New York, (1963).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, Richard J. Lewis, Sr., ed., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1979.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. M. Grant, D. A. Miller, J. S. Gilmore, H. A. O’Brien, Jr., Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot, 33: 415 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. R. Phillips, D. C. Moody, W. A. Taylor, N. J. Segura, and B. D. Pate, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 38:521 (1987).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. M. Emran, and D. R. Phillips, Potential Applications of Arsenic Isotopes, in Proceedings of the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Los Angeles, September, 1988.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. R. Phillips, D. A. Nix, and A. M. Emran, Progress on an Electrolytic 72Se/72As Radiochemical Generator, in Proceedings of the International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies, Honolulu, December, 1989.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Birattari, M. Bonardi, and A. Salomone, J. Label. Comp. Radiooharm XVIII: 253 (1988).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. H. Al-Kouraishi, and G. G. J. Boswell, Int. J. Aool. Radiat. and Isot. 2:(607).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. B. S. Rayudu, Seminars in Nbclear Medicine XX: 100 (1990).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. E. Ward, D. L. Swindle, R. J. Wright, and P. K. Kuroda, Radiochimica Acta 11: 70 (1970).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    F. Hosain, A. Emran, R. P. Spencer and K. S. Clampitt, Int. J. App’, Radiat. Isot. 33: 1477 (1982).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. Weinreich, R. Schwarzbach, A. B. Alfassi, and P. Smith-Jones, J. Label, Comp. Radiopharm. X XVI (1989).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Inarida, A. Shimamura, Radioanal. Letters 2: 87 (1969).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. J. Ruth, B. D. Pate, R. Robertson, and J. K. Porter, 16: 323 (1989).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Guillaume, R. M. Lambrecht, A. P. Wolf, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. and Isot. 29: 411 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. J. La Brecque and I. L. Preiss, J. !nor. and Nucl. Chem. 38: 2139 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Y. Wang, ed., “Handbook of Radioactive Nuclides”, Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland (1969).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    H. C. Beard and J. G. Cuninghame, “Radiochemistry of Arsenic,” United States Atomic Energy Commission, Springfield, VA (1965).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. M. Emran and R. P. Spencer, Unpublished data on 77As production.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. R. Arnold and N. Sugarman, J. Chem. Phys. 15: 703 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. S. Mani, Research Reactor Production of Radioisotopes for Medical Use, in “Radiopharmaceuticals and Labeled Compounds, 1984, Tokyo Conference Proceedings, IACE, Vienna (1985).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. Michael Lederer and Virginia S. Shirley, eds., Table of Isotopes, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Amersham Corporation, “Research Products.”Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Medical Radioisotopes Research Program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    F. A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, “Advanced Inorganic Chemistry,” Third Edition, Interscience Publishers, New York (1972).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. C. Thorpe and M. A. Whitley, eds., “Thorpe’s Dictionary of Applied Chemistry, Vol. I, Longmans Publishers, London (1969).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    D. Basile, C. Birattari, M. Bonardi, L. Goetz, E. Sabbioni, and A. Salomone, Int. J. Aopl. Radiat. Isotopes 32: 403 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. Forsberg, J. W. O’Laughlin, R. G. Megargle, and S. R. Koirtyohann, Anal., Chem. 47: 1586 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    E. M. Donaldson, Talanta 24: 105 (1977).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    E. M. Donaldson, Talanta 35: 47 (1988).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    E. Henden, Anal. Chim. Acta 173: 89 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    W. D. SpaII, J. G. Lynn, J. L. Andersen, J. JG. Valdez, and L. R. Gurley, Anal. Chem. 58: 1340 (1986).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    V. I. Rigin, J. Anal. Chem. -USSR 38: 806 (1983).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    W. Holak, Journal of the AOAC 59: 650 (1976).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    T. E. Ward, D. L. Swindle, R. J. Wright, and P. K. Kuroda, Radiochimica Acta 11: 70 (1970).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    D. R. Phillips, V. T. Tate, W. A. Taylor, R. C. Staroski, R. A. Lopez, Recovery of Germanium, Selenium, and Arsenic Radioisotopes from Proton Irradiated RbBr, manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    S. A. Amankwah, and J. L. Fasching, Talanta 32: 111 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Y. M. Yukhim, V. V. Sergeeva, and V. P. Litvinov, Industrial Laboratory-USSR 45: 979 (1979).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    M Inarida, A. Shimamura, Radiochem. Radioanal. Letters 2: 87 (1969).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    A. R. Casai and M. S. Zalba, AFINIDAD 38: 405 (1981).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A. R. Casai and M. S. Zalba Annales de Quimica Serie B-Quimica Inorganica Y Quimica Analytica 81: 203 (1985).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    S. S. Sandhu, and P. Nelson, in Proceedings of the April, 1979 Meeting of the American Chemical Society, 1979, 280 (1979).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    G. Aliotta and D. P. Desilvetti, Anales de la Associacion Quimica Argentina 66: 1 (1978).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    R. Lagunas, D. Pestana, and J. C. Diezmasa, Biochemistry 23: 955 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    M. Braungart and H. Russel, Chromatographia 19: 185 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Z Hu and Y. B. Tang, Analyst 113: 179 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    A. Watson, Mikrochimica Acta 2: 157 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cadet, Mem. Math Phys. 3: 623 (1760).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    H Bart, Ger. Pat. 250,264 (Jan. 8, 1910), Cf. CA= 6, 3312 (1912).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    H. P. Brown and C. S. Hamilton, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 56: 151 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    G. Meyer, 132L. 16: 1439 (1883).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    K. W. Rosenmund, Ber. 54: 438 (1921).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    K. Irgolic, R. A. Zingaro, and M. R. Smith, J. Organometal. Chem. 12: 377 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    G. O. Doak, H. Eagle, and H. G. Steinman, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 62: 168 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    J. F. Oneto and E. L. Way, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 63: 762 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    E. L. Way and J. F. Oneto, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 64: 1287 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    J. F. Norris, Ind. Eng. Chem. 11: 817 (1919).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    C. Walling and S. A. Buckler, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77: 6032 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    F. Sachs and K. Kantorowiez Ber. 41: 2767 (1908).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    K. Matsumiya and M. Nakai, Mem. Coll. Sci.. Koyoto Imp. Univ. 8A 309 (1925) cf. CA, 19, 3086 (1925).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    G. Newberry and M. A., J. Chem. Soc. 2375 (1928).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    E. J. Cragoe, R. J. Andres, R. F. Coles, B. Elpern, J. G. Morgan, and C. S. Hamilton, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 69: 925 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    W. C. Johnson and A. Pechukas, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 59: 2068 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    L. Schmerling (To Universal Oil Products Co.), U. S. Pat. 2,842,579 (July 8, 1958), cf. CA 55, 497 (1961).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    E. R. H. Jones and F. G. Mann, J. Chem. Soc. 294 (1958).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    E. Miller, B. Teissier, H. Eggensperger, A. Reiker, and K. Scheffler, J. L. Ann. Chem, 705: 54 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    D. E. Worral, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 52: 664 (1930).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    F. G. Mann and J. Watson, J. Chem. Soc. 505 (1947).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    M. Kraft, and S. A. Rossina, Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR 55: 821 (1947).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    G. A. Rasuwajew and M. Malinowsk, Ber. 64: 120 (1931).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    G. K. H. Tam, S. M. Charbonneau, G. Lacroix, and F. Bryce, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 21: 371 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    S. M. Charbonnequ, J. G. Hollins, G. K. H. Tam, G. Bryce, J. M. Ridgeway, and R. F. Willes, Toxicology Letters 5: 175 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    S. A. Lerman, T. W. Clarkson, and R. J. Gerson Chem.-Biol. Interactions 45: 401 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    M. Vahter and E. Marafante, Chem.-Biol. Interactions 47: 29 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    E. Marafante and M. Vahter, Chem.-Biol. Interactions 50: 49 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Private communications between one of the authors (DRP) and numerous arsenic radioisotope users.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    R. L. Junkins, V. Schultz, A. W. Klement, Jr., Arsenic and Its Radioisotopes in the Environs, in “Radioecology, Proceedings of the National Symposium on Radioecology 1st,” Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York (1963).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    R. C. Ball and F. H. Hooper, Use of 74As-Tagged Sodium Arsenite in a Study of Effects of a Herbicide on Pond Ecology, in “Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use of Isotopes in Weed Research,” International Atomic Energy Agency (1966).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    J. Oughton, Rept. Ent. Soc. Ont., 81:91, as referenced by D. W. Jenkins, Radioisotopes in Ecological and Biological Studies of Agricultural Insects, in “Proceedings of the Symposium on Radioisotopes and Radiation in Entomology,” International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (1962).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    G. L. Brownell and W. H. Sweet, Nucleonics 11: 40 (1953).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    W. H. Sweet and G. L. Brownell, J.A.M.A. 157: 1183 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    J. R. Mallard, J. F. Fowler, and M. Sulton, Br. J. Radiol. 34: 562 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    W. Paul and R. H. Botterell, J. Nucl. Med. 4: 1 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    P. A. Farrer and J. McRae, Australian Annals of Medicine 12: 93 (1963).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    P. Benda, M. David, and J. Constans, Rev. Neurol 89: 101 (1953).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    J. Mealey, G. L. Brownell, and W. H. Sweet, Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 81: 310 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    R. G. Long, J. G. McAfee, and J. Winkelman, Cancer Res. 23: 98 (1963).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    C. M. E. Matthews and G. Molinaro, Brit. J. Exp. Path. 44: 260 (1963).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    J. L. Mego and J. D. McQueen, Cancer Res. 23: 523 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    J. D. McQueen and J. L. Mego, Neurosurgery 21: 641 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    R. G. Ojemann, S. Aronow, and W. H. Sweet, Neurosurgery 22: 489 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Leicester and G. K. Vanerfield, The Medical Journal of Australia Part 2, Page 680, October 8, 1966.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    P. Hosain, P. K. Sripada, R. P. Spencer, and F. Hosain, Int. J. Nucl Med. and Biol. 8: 209 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    A. M Emran, F. Hosain, and R.P Spencer, J. Nucl. Med. 23: 100 (1982).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    A. M. Emran, F. Hosain, and R. P. Spencer, J. Label. Comp. Radiooharm. XIX: 1505 (1982).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    A. Emran, F. Hosain, R. P. Spencer, and K S. Kolstad, Int. J. Nucl. Med. Biol. 11: 259 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Private communication with S. Larsen and J. Mercer-Smith.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali M. Emran
    • 1
  • Dennis R. Phillips
    • 2
  1. 1.Cyclotron FacilityPositron Diagnostic and Research Center The University of Texas Health Science CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Isotopes and Nuclear Chemistry Group 11Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA

Personalised recommendations