Advertisement

The Reoviridae pp 107-196 | Cite as

The Reovirus Multiplication Cycle

  • Helmut Zarbl
  • Stewart Millward
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)

Abstract

Human reoviruses have been recovered from a variety of mammals (Stanley, 1961a; Rosen, 1968). Serological studies, which reveal the presence of reovirus specific antibodies, have indicated a ubiquitous distribution of reovirus among mammals (Stanley, 1961a, b; Rosen, 1962). The American Type Culture Collection has suggested at least 14 mammalian cell lines as suitable for the growth of reoviruses, including cell lines derived from 12 different species and 7 different tissue types (see Catalogue of Strains II, 3rd ed., 1981). As a result of this extensive host range, several aspects of the reovirus multiplication cycle have been studied at one time or another in a variety of mammalian cells. However, most of the studies concerning the molecular biology of the reovirus multiplication cycle have been carried out on mouse L fibroblasts infected with the Dearing strain of reovirus type 3. The reason for this is that mouse L cells grow readily in suspension culture and that the Dearing strain multiplies particularly well in these cells. Therefore, the discussion of the events in the reovirus multiplication cycle will of necessity be based primarily on studies of reovirus multiplication in mouse L cells. Wherever appropriate, the discussion will include the multiplication of all three serotypes of human reovirus in a variety of cell lines.

Keywords

Minus Strand dsRNA Segment Reovirus Infection Parental Transcript Subviral Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acs, G., Klett, H., Schonberg, M., Christman, J., Levin, D.H., and Silverstein, S.C., 1971, Mechanism of reovirus double-stranded RNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro, J. Virol. 8(5):684–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed, R., Chakraborty, P.R., and Fields, B.N., 1980, Genetic variation during lytic reovirus infection: High passage stocks of wild-type reovirus contain temperature-sensitive mutants, J. Virol. 34(1):285–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Antczak, J.B., Chmelo, R., Pickup, D.J., and Joklik, W.K., 1982, Sequences at both termini of the 10 genes of reovirus serotype 3 (strain Dearing), Virology 121:307–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, N., and Doane, F.W., 1966, An electron microscope study of reovirus type 2 in L cells, J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 92:433–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Astell, C., Silverstein, S.C., Levin, D.H., and Acs, G., 1972, Regulation of the reovirus RNA transcriptase by a viral capsomere protein, Virology 48:648–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Babiss, L.E., Luftig, R.B., Weatherbee, J.A., Weihing, R.R., Ray, U.R., and Fields, B.N., 1979, Reovirus serotypes 1 and 3 differ in their in vitro association with microtubules, J. Virol. 30:863–874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Banerjee, A.K., 1980, 5′-Terminal cap structure in eukaryotic messenger ribonucleic acids, Microbiol. Rev. 44:175–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Banerjee, A.K., and Shatkin, A.J., 1970, Transcription in vitro by reovirus-associated RNA-dependent polymerase, J. Virol. 6:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Banerjee, A.K., Ward, R., and Shatkin, A.J., 1971, Cytosine at the 3′-termini of reovirus genome and in vitro mRNA, Nature (London) New Biol. 232:114–115.Google Scholar
  10. Bartlett, N.M., Gillies, S.C., Bullivant, S., and Bellamy, A.R., 1974, An electron microscope study of reovirus reaction cores, J. Virol. 14:315–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bellamy, A.R., and Harvey, J.D., 1976, Biophysical studies of reovirus type 3. III. A laserscattering study of the RNA transcriptase reaction, Virology 70:28–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bellamy, A.R., and Hole, L.V., 1970, Single-stranded oligonucleotides from reovirus type III, Virology 40:808–819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bellamy, A.R., and Joklik, W.K., 1967a, Studies on reovirus RNA. II. Characterization of reovirus messenger RNA and of the genome RNA segments from which it is transcribed, J. Mol. Biol. 29:19–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bellamy, A.R., and Joklik, W.K., 1967b, Studies on the A-rich RNA of reovirus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 58:1389–1395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bellamy, A.R., Hole, L.V., and Baguley, B.C., 1970, Isolation of the trinucleotide pppGpCpU from reovirus, Virology 42:415–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bellamy, A.R., Nichols, J.L., and Joklik, W.K., 1972, Nucleotide sequences of reovirus oligonucleotides: Evidence for abortive RNA synthesis during virus maturation, Nature (London) New Biol. 238:49–51.Google Scholar
  17. Borsa, J., and Graham, A.F., 1968, Reovirus: RNA polymerase activity in purified virions, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 33:895–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Borsa, J., Grover, J., and Chapman, J.D., 1970, Presence of nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase activity in purified virions of reovirus, J. Virol. 6:295–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Borsa, J., Copps, T.P., Sargent, M.D., Long, D.G., and Chapman, J.D., 1973a, New intermediate subviral particles in the in vitro uncoating of reovirus virions by chymotrypsin, J. Virol. 11(4):552–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Borsa, J., Sargent, M.D., Copps, T.P., Long, D.G., and Chapman, J.D., 1973b, Specific monovalent cation effects on modification of reovirus infectivity by chymotrypsin digestion in vitro, J. Virol. 11:1017–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Borsa, J., Long, D.G., Copps, T.P., Sargent, M.D., and Chapman, J.D., 1974a, Reovirus transcriptase activation in vitro: Further studies on the facilitation phenomenon, Inter-virology 3:15-35.Google Scholar
  22. Borsa, J., Long, D.G., Sargent, M.D., Copps, T.P., and Chapman, J.D., 1974b, Reovirus transcriptase activation in vitro: Involvement of an endogenous uncoating activity in the second stage of the process, Intervirology 4:171-188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Borsa, J., Morash, B.D., Sargent, M.D., Copps, T.P., Lievaart, P.A., and Szekely, J.G., 1979, Two modes of entry of reovirus into L cells, J. Gen. Virol. 45:161–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Borsa, J., Sargent, M.D., Lievaart, P.A., and Copps, TP., 1981, Reovirus: Evidence for a second step in the intracellular uncoating and transcriptase activation process, Virology 111:191–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Both, G.W., Lavi, S., and Shatkin, A.J., 1975a, Synthesis of all the gene products of the reovirus genome in vivo and in vitro, Cell 4:173–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Both, G.W., Furuichi, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., and Shatkin, A.J., 1975b, Ribosome binding to reovirus mRNA in protein synthesis requires 5′ terminal 7-methylguanosine, Cell 6:185-195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Both, G.W., Banerjee, A.K., and Shatkin, A.J., 1975c, Methylation-dependent translation of viral messenger RNAs in vitro, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:1189–1193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brendler, T., Godefroy-Colburn, T., Cariili, R.D., and Thach, R.E., 1981a, The role of mRNA competition in regulating translation. II. Development of a quantitative in vitro assay, J. Biol. Chem. 256:11, 747-11, 754.Google Scholar
  29. Brendler, T., Godefroy-Colburn, T., Yu, S., and Thach, R.E., 1981b, The role of mRNA competition in regulating translation. III. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo results, J. Biol. Chem. 256:11, 755-11, 761.Google Scholar
  30. Brown, B.A., and Ehrenfeld, E., 1980, Initiation factor preparations from poliovirus-infected cells restrict translation in reticulocyte lysates, Virology 103:327–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brown, D., Jones, C.L., Brown, B.A., Ehrenfeld, E., 1982, Translation of capped and uncapped VSV mRNAs in the presence of initiation factors from poliovirus-infected cells, Virology 123:60–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Brubaker, M.M., West, B., and Ellis, R.J., 1964, Human blood group influence on reovirus hemagglutination titres, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 115:1118–1120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Carter, C.A., 1977, Methylation of reovirus oligonucleotides in vivo and in vitro, Virology 80:249–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Carter, C.A., 1979, Activation of reovirion-associated poly (A) polymerase and oligomer methylase by cofactor-dependent cleavage of μ polypeptides, Virology 94:417–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Carter, C.A., and Lin, B.Y., 1979, Conservation and modification of the pyrimidine-rich reovirus oligonucleotides after infection, Virology 93:329–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Carter, C.A., Stoltzfus, C.M., Banerjee, A.K., and Shatkin, A.J., 1974, Origin of reovirus oligo(A), J. Virol. 13:1331–1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Carter, C.A., Lin, B.Y., and Metlay, M., 1980, Polyadenylation of reovirus proteins, J. Biol. Chem. 255:6479–6485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Chang, C.-T., and Zweerink, H.J., 1971, Fate of parental reovirus in infected cell, Virology 46(3):544–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Christman, J.K., Reiss, B., Kyner, D., Levin, D.H., Klett, H., and Acs, G., 1973, Characterization of a viral messenger ribonucleoprotein particle accumulated during inhibition of polypeptide chain initiation in reovirus infected L cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 294(1):153–164.Google Scholar
  40. Cox, D.C., and Clinkscales, C.W., 1976, Infectious reovirus subviral particles: Virus replication, cellular cytopathology and DNA synthesis, Virology 74:259–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cox, D.C., and Shaw, J.E., 1974, Inhibition of the initiation of cellular DNA synthesis after reovirus infection, J. Virol. 13(3):760–761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cross, R.K., and Fields, B.N., 1972, Temperature-sensitive mutants of reovirus type 3: Studies on the synthesis of viral RNA, Virology 50:799–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cross, R.K., and Fields, B.N., 1976, Reovirus-specific polypeptides: Analysis using discontinuous gel electrophoresis, J. Virol. 19:162–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cross, R.K., and Fields, B.N., 1977, Genetics of reovirus, in: Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 9 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R.R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 291–340 Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Dales, S., 1963, Association between the spindle apparatus and reovirus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 50:268–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dales, S., 1965a, Replication of animal viruses as studied by electron microscopy, Am. J. Med. 38:699–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dales, S., 1965b, Effects of Streptovitacin A on the initial events in the replication of vaccinia and reovirus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 54:462–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Dales, S., 1973, Early events in cell-animal virus interactions, Bacteriol. Rev. 37:103–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dales, S., Gomatos, P.J., and Hsu, K.C, 1965, The uptake and development of reovirus in strain L cells followed with labeled viral ribonucleic acid and ferritin-antibody conjugates, Virology 25:193–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Darzynkiewicz, E., and Shatkin, A.J., 1980, Assignment of reovirus mRNA ribosome binding sites to virion genome segments by nucleotide sequence analysis, Nucleic Acids Res. 8:337–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Desrosiers, R.C, Sen, G.C, and Lengyel, P., 1976, Difference in 5′ terminal structure between the mRNA and the double-stranded virion RNA of reovirus, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 73:32–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Detjen, B.M., Waiden, W.E., and Thach, R.E., 1982, Transitional specificity in reovirus-infected mouse fibroblasts, J. Biol. Chem. 257:9855–9860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Drayna, D., and Fields, B.N., 1982, Activation and characterization of the reovirus transcriptase: Genetic analysis, J. Virol. 41:110–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Drouhet, V., 1960, Lésions céllulaires provoquées par les réovirus (Virus echo 10): Anticorps fluorescents et étude cytochimique, Ann. Inst. Pasteur 98:618–621.Google Scholar
  55. Etchison, D., Milbum, S.C., Edery, I., Sonenberg, N., and Hershey, J.W.B., 1982, Inhibition of HeLa cell protein synthesis following poliovirus infection correlates with the proteolysis of a 220,000-dalton polypeptide associated with eukaryotic initiation factor 3 and a cap binding protein complex, J. Biol. Chem. 257:14806–14810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Eggers, H.J., Gomatos, P.J., and Tamm, I., 1962, Agglutination of bovine erythrocytes: A general characteristic of reovirus type 3, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 110:879–881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ehrenfeld, E., and Lund, H., 1977, Untranslated vesicular stomatitis virus messenger RNA after poliovirus infection, Virology 80:297–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ehrenfeld, E., and Manis, S., 1979, Inhibition of 80S initiation complex formation by infection with poliovirus, J. Gen. Virol. 43:441–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ensminger, W.D., and Tamm, I., 1969a, Cellular DNA and protein synthesis in reovirusinfected L cells, Virology 39:357–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Ensminger, W.D., and Tamm, I., 1969b, The step in cellular DNA synthesis blocked by reovirus infection, Virology 39:935–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ensminger, W.D., and Tamm, I., 1970, Inhibition of synchronized cellular deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis during Newcastle disease virus, mengovirus or reovirus infection, J. Virol. 5:672–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Faust, M., and Millward, S., 1974, In vitro methylation of nascent reovirus mRNA by a virion-associated methyl transferase, Nucleic Acids Res. 1:1739–1752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Faust, M., Hastings, K.E.M., and Millward, S., 1975, m7G5′ ppp5′ GmpCpUp at the 5′ terminus of reovirus messenger RNA, Nucleic Acids Res. 2:1329–1343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fernandez-Munoz, R., and Darnell, J.E., 1976, Structural differences between the 5′ termini of viral and cellular mRNA in poliovirus-infected cells: Possible basis for the inhibition of host protein synthesis, J. Virol. 18:719–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Fields, B.N., 1971, Temperature-sensitive mutants of reovirus type 3: Features of genetic recombination, Virology 46:142–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fields, B.N., and Eagle, H., 1973, The pH-dependence of reovirus synthesis, Virology 52:581–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Fields, B.N., Raine, C.S., and Baum, S.G., 1971, Temperature-sentitive mutants of reovirus type 3: Defects in viral maturation as studied by immunofluorescence and electron microcopy, Virology 43:569–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fields, B.N., Laskov, R., and Scharff, M.D., 1972, Temperature-sensitive mutants of reovirus type 3: Studies on the synthesis of viral peptides, Virology 50:209–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Filipowicz, W., 1978, Functions of the 5′-terminal m7G cap in eukaryotic mRNA, FEBS Lett. 96:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Finberg, R., Weiner, H.L., Fields, B.N., Benacerraf, B., and Burakoff, S.J., 1979, Generation of cytolytic T lymphocytes after reovirus infection: Role of S1 gene, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:442–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Floyd, W.D., Stone, M.P., and Joklik, W.K., 1974, Separation of single-stranded ribonucleic acids by acrylamide-agarose-urea gel electrophoresis, Anal. Biochem. 59:599–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Follet, E.A., Pringle, C.R., and Pennington, T.H., 1975, Virus development in enucleated cells: Echovirus, poliovirus, pseudorabies virus, reovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and Semliki forest virus, J. Gen. Virol. 26:183–196.Google Scholar
  73. Furuichi, Y., 1981, Allosteric stimulatory effect of S-adenosylmethionine on the RNA polymerase in cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus: A model for the positive control of eukaryotic transcription, J. Biol. Chem. 256:483–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Furuichi, Y., and Shatkin, A.J., 1976, Differential synthesis of blocked and unblocked 5′-termini in reovims mRNA: Effect of pyrophosphate and pyrophosphatase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73:3448–3452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Furuichi, Y., and Shatkin, A.J., 1977, 5′-Termini of reovims mRNA: Ability of viral cores to form caps post-transcriptionally, Virology 77:566–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Furuichi, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., and Shatkin, A.J., 1975, 5′-Terminal m7G(5′)ppp(5′)Gmp in vivo: Identification in reovirus genome RNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:742–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Furuichi, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., Tomasz, J., and Shatkin, A.J., 1976, Mechanism of formation of reovirus mRNA 5′-terminal blocked and methylated sequence, m7GpppGmpC, J. Biol. Chem. 251:5043–5053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gaillard, R.K., Li, J.K.-K., Keene, J.D., and Joklik, W.K., 1982, The sequences at the termini of four genes of the three reovirus serotypes, Virology, 121:320–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Galster, R.L., and Lengyel, P., 1976, Formation and characteristics of reovirus subviral particles in interferon-treated mouse L cells, Nuclei Acids Res. 3:581–598.Google Scholar
  80. Gavrilovskaya, I.N., Lavrova, I.K., Voroshilova, M.K., Chumakov, M.P., Poverenny, A.M., and Podgorodnichenko, V.K., 1974, Immunofluorescent demonstration of doublestranded RNA and virus antigen in RNA virus-infected cells, Virology 62:276–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gelb, L.D., and Lerner, A.M., 1965, Reovirus hemagglutination: Inhibition by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, Science 147:404–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gillies, S., Bullivant, S., and Bellamy, A.R., 1971, Viral RNA polymerases: Electron microscopy of reovirus reaction cores, Science 174:694–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gomatos, P.J., 1967, RNA synthesis in reovirus-infected L929 mouse fibroblasts, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 58:1798–1805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gomatos, P.J., and Kuechenthal, I., 1977, Reovirus specific enzyme(s) associated with subviral particles responds in vitro to polyribocytidylate to yield double-stranded polyribocytidylate · polyriboguanylate, J. Virol. 23(1):80–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gomatos, P.J., and Tamm, I., 1962, Sites of reovirus type 3 and their interaction with receptor substances, Virology 17:455–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gomatos, P.J., and Tamm, I., 1963, Macromolecular synthesis in reovirus-infected L cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 72:651–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gomatos, P.J., Tamm, I., Dale, S., and Franklin, R.M., 1962, Reovirus type 3: Physical characteristic and interaction with L cells, Virology 17:441–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Gomatos, P.J., Stamatos, N.M., and Sarkar, N.H., 1980, Small reovirus specific particle with polycytidylate-dependent RNA polymerase activity, J. Virol. 36:556–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Gomatos, P.J., Prakash, O., and Stamatos, N.M., 1981, Small reovirus particles composed solely of sigma NS with specificity for binding different nuclei acids, J. Virol. 39:115–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Granboulan, N., and Niveleau, A., 1967, Etude au microscope électronique du RNA de réovirus, J. Microsc. 6:23–27.Google Scholar
  91. Graziadei, W.D., III, and Lengyel, P., 1972, Translation of in vitro synthesized reovirus messenger RNA into proteins of the size of reovirus capsid proteins in a mouse L cell extract, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 46(5):1816–1823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Graziadei, W.D., III, Roy, D., Konigsberg, W., and Lengyel, P., 1973, Translation of reovirus RNA synthesized in vitro into reovirus proteins in a mouse L cell extract, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 158(1):266–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Gupta, S.L., Graziadei, W.D., III, Weideli, H., Sopori, M.L., and Lengyel, P., 1974, Selective inhibition of viral protein accumulation in interferon-treated cells: Nondiscriminate inhibition of the translation of added viral and cellular messenger RNAs in their extracts, Virology 57:49–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Hand, R., and Kasupski, G.J., 1978, DNA and histone synthesis in reovirus infected cells, J. Gen. Virol. 39(3):437–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hand, R., and Tamm, I., 1971, Reovirus: Analysis of proteins from released and cell-associated virus, J. Gen. Virol. 12:121–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hand, R., and Tamm, I., 1972, Rate of DNA chain growth in mammalian cells infected with cytocidal RNA viruses, Virology 47(2):331–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hand, R., and Tamm, I., 1973, Reovirus: Effect of noninfective viral components on cellular DNA synthesis, J. Virol. 11(2):223–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hand, R., and Tamm, I., 1974, Initiation of DNA replication in mammalian cells and its inhibition by reovirus infection, J. Mol. Biol. 82(2): 175–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Hand, R., Ensminger, W.D., and Tamm, I., 1971, Cellular DNA replication in infections with cytocidal RNA viruses, Virology 44:527–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hansen, J., and Ehrenfeld, E., 1981, Presence of the cap-binding protein in initiation factor preparations from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells, J. Virol. 38:438–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Hensen, R.K., Etchison, D., Hershey, J.W.R., and Ehrenfeld, E., 1982a, Association of capbinding protein with eukaryotic initiation factor 3 in initiation factor preparations from uninfected and poliovirus-infected HeLa cells, J. Virol. 42:200-207.Google Scholar
  102. Hansen, J.L., Etchison, D.O., Hershey, J.W.B., and Ehrenfeld, E., 1982b, Localization of capbinding protein in subcellular fractions of HeLa cells. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2:1639–1643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Hassan, S.A., Rabin, E.R., and Melnick, J.L., 1965, Reovirus myocarditis in mice: An electron microscopic, immunofluorescent, and virus assay study, Exp. Mol. Pathol. 4:66–80.Google Scholar
  104. Hastings, K.E.M., and Millward, S., 1981, Similar sets of terminal oligonucleotides from reovirus double-stranded RNA and viral messenger RNA synthesized in vitro, ICan. J. Biochem. 59:151–157.Google Scholar
  105. Hay, A.J., and Joklik, W.K., 1971, Demonstration that the same strand of reovirus genome RNA is transcribed in vitro and in vivo, Virology 44:450–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Helentjaris, T., and Ehrenfeld, E., 1978, Control of protein synthesis in extracts from poliovirus-infected cells. I. mRNA discrimination by crude initiation factors, J. Virol. 26:510–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Helentjaris, T., Ehrenfeld, E., Brown-Luedi, MX., and Hershey, J.W.B., 1979, Alterations in initiation factor activity from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells, J. Biol. Chem. 254:10, 973-10, 978Google Scholar
  108. Hewlett, M.J., Rose, J.K., and Baltimore, D., 1976, 5′-Terminal structure of poliovirus polyribosomal RNA is pUp, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73:327–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Huismans, H., and Joklik, W.K., 1976, Reovirus coded polypeptides in infected cells: Isolation of two native monomeric polypeptides with affinity for single-stranded and double-stranded RNA respectively, Virology 70(2):411–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Ito, Y., and Joklik, W.K., 1972a, Temperature-sensitive mutants of reovirus. I. Patterns of gene expression by mutants of groups C., D and E, Virology 50:189–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ito, Y., and Joklik, W.K., 1972b, Temperature-sensitive mutants of reovirus. II. Anomalous electrophoretic migration behavior of certain hybrid RNA molecules composed of mutant plus strands and wild-type minus strands, Virology 50:202-208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Jen, G., Detjen, B.M., and Thach, R.E., 1980, Shutoff of HeLa cell protein synthesis by encephalomyocarditis virus and poliovirus: A comparative study, J. Virol. 35:150–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Johnson, R.B., Jr., Soeiro, R., and Fields, B.N., 1976, The synthesis of A-rich RNA by temperature-sensitive mutants of reovirus, Virology 73(1): 173–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Joklik, W.K., 1972, Studies on the effect of chymotrypsin on reovirions, Virology 49:700–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Joklik, W.K., 1974, Reproduction of Reoviridae, in: Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 2 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R.R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 231–334 Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  116. Joklik, W.K., 1980, The structure and function of the reovirus genome, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 354:107–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Joklik, W.K., 1981, Structure and function of the reovirus genome, Microbiol. Rev. 45:483–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Joklik, W.K., Skehel, J.J., and Zweerink, H.J., 1970, The transcription of the reovirus genome, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 35:791–801.Google Scholar
  119. Kapuler, A.M., Mendelsohn, N., Klett, H., and Acs, G., 1970, Four base-specific nucleoside 5′-triphosphatases in the subviral core of reovirus, Nature (London) 225:1209–1213.Google Scholar
  120. Kaufman, Y., Goldstein, E., and Penman, S., 1976, Poliovirus-induced inhibition of polypeptide initiation in vitro on native polyribosomes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73:1834–1838.Google Scholar
  121. Kavenoff, R., Talcove, D., and Mudd, J.A., 1975, Genome sized RNA from reovirus particles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:4317–4321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Kilham, L., and Margolis, G., 1969, Hydrocephalus in hamsters, ferrets, rats and mice following inoculations with reovirus type 1. II. Pathological studies, Lab. Invest. 21:189–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Koide, F., Suzuka, I., and Sekiguchi, K., 1968, Some properties of an adenine-rich polynucleotide fragment from the avian reovirus, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 30:95–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kozak, M., 1977, Nucleotide sequences of 5′-terminal ribosome-protected initiation regions from two reovirus messages, Nature (London) 269:390–394.Google Scholar
  125. Kozak, M., 1978, How do eukaryotic ribosomes select initiation regions in messenger RNA?. Cell 15:1109–1123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kozak, M., 1981, Possible role of flanking nucleotides in recognition of the AUG initiator codon by eukaryotic ribosomes, Nucleic Acids Res. 9:5233–5252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Kozak, M., 1982a, Analysis of ribosome binding sites from the s1 message of reovirus. Initiation at the first and second AUG codons. J. Mol. Biol. 156:807–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kozak, M., 1982b, Sequences of ribosome binding sites from the large size class of reovirus mRNA, J. Virol. 42:467–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kozak, M., and Shatkin, A.J., 1976, Characterization of ribosome-protected fragments from reovirus messenger RNA, J. Biol. Chem. 251:4259–4266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kozak, M., and Shatkin, A.J., 1977a, Sequences of two 5′-terminal ribosome-protected fragments from reovirus messenger RNA’s, J. Mol. Biol. 112:75-96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Kozal, M., and Shatkin, A.J., 1977b, Sequences and properties of two ribosome binding sites from the small size class of reovirus messenger RNA, J. Biol. Chem. 252:6895-6908.Google Scholar
  132. Kozak, M., and Shatkin, A.J., 1978, Identification of features in 5′-terminal fragments from reovirus mRNA which are important for ribosome binding, Cell 13:201–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kreft, J., 1980, Reovirus-specific messenger ribonucleoprotein particles from HeLa cells, Z. Naturforsch. 35c: 1046–1051.Google Scholar
  134. Krystal, G., Winn, P., Millward, S., and Sakuma, S., 1975, Evidence for phosphoproteins in reovirus. Virology 64:505–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Krystal, G., Perrault, J., and Graham, A.F., 1976, Evidence for a glycoprotein in reovirus, Virology 72:308–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kudo, H., and Graham, A.F., 1965, Synthesis of reovirus ribonucleic acid in L cells, J. Bacteriol. 90:936–945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kudo, H., and Graham, A.F., 1966, Selective inhibition of reovirus induced RNA in L cells, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 24:150–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Laemmli, U.K., 1970, Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4, Nature (London) 227:680–685.Google Scholar
  139. Lai, K.C., and Bellamy, A.R., 1971, Factors affecting the amount of oligonucleotides in reovirus particles, Virology 45(3):821–823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Lai, M.-H.T., Werenne, J.J., and Joklik, W.K., 1973, The preparation of reovirus top component and its effect on host DNA and protein synthesis, Virology 54(1):237–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Lau, R.Y., Van Alstyne, D., Berckmans, R., and Graham, A.F., 1975, Synthesis of reovirusspecific polypeptides in cells pretreated with cycloheximide, J. Virol. 16:470–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Lee, K.A.W., and Sonenberg, N., 1982, Inactivation of cap-binding proteins accompanies the shut-off of host protein systhesis by poliovirus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:3447–3451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Lee, P.W.K., Hayes, E.C., and Joklik, W.K., 1981a, Characterization of anti-reovirus im-munoglobulins secreted by cloned hybridoma cell lines, Virology 108:134-146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Lee, P.W.K., Hayes, E.C., and Joklik, W.K., 1981b, Protein sigma-1 is the reovirus cell attachment protein, Virology 108(1):156–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Leibowitz, R., and Penman, S., 1971, Regulation of protein synthesis in HeLa cells. III. Inhibition during poliovirus infection, J. Virol. 8:661–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Lerner, A.M., and Miranda, Q.R., 1968, Cellular interactions of several enteroviruses and a reovirus after treatment with sodium borohydride or carbohydrases, Virology 36:277–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Lerner, A.M., Cherry, J.D., and Finland, M., 1963, Hemagglutination with reovirus, Virology 19:58–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Lerner, A.M., Bailey, E.J., and Tillotson, J.R., 1966a, Enterovirus hemagglutination: Inhibition by several enzymes and sugars, J. Immunol. 95:1111–1115.Google Scholar
  149. Lerner, A.M., Gelb, L.D., Tillotson, J.R., Carruthers, M.M., and Bailey, E.J., 1966b, Enterovirus hemagglutination: Inhibition by aldoses and a possible mechanism, J. Immunol. 96:629-636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Levin, D.H., Mendelsohn, N., Schonberg, M., Klett, H., Silverstein, S., Kapuler, A.M., and Acs, G., 1970, Properties of RNA transcriptase in reovirus subviral particles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 66:890–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Levin, K.H., and Samuel, C.E., 1980, Biosynthesis of reovirus-specified polypeptides: Purification and characterization of the small-sized class mRNAs of reovirus type 3: Coding assignments and translational efficiencies, Virology 106:1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Li, J.K.-K., Keene, J.D., Scheible, P.P., and Joklik, W.K., 1980a, Nature of the 3′-terminal sequences of the plus and minus strands of the S1 gene of reovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Virology 105:41-51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Li, J.K.-K., Scheible, P.P., Keene, J.D., and Joklik, W.K., 1980b, The plus strand of reovirus gene S2 is identical with its in vitro transcript, Virology 105:282–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Loh, P.C., and Soergel, M., 1966, Growth characteristics of reovirus type 2: Actinomycin D and the preferential synthesis of viral RNA, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 122:1248–1250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Loh, P.C., Hashiro, G.M., and Yau, J.T., 1977, Effect of poly cations on the early stages of reovirus infection, Microbios 19(77–78):213–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Luftig, R.B., Kilham, S.S., Hay, A.J., Zweerink, H.J., and Joklik, W.K., 1972, An ultrastructural study of virions and cores of reovirus type 3, Virology 48:170–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. MacDonald, R.D., 1980, Immuno fluorescent detection of double-stranded RNA in cells infected with reovirus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and infectious bursal disease virus, Can. J. Microbiol. 26(2):256–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Margolis, G., Kilham, L., and Gonatos, N.K., 1971, Reovirus type 3 encephalitis: Observations of virus-cell interactions in neuronal tissues, Lab. Invest. 24:101–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Martin, S.A., Pett, D.M., and Zweerink, H.J., 1973, Studies on the topography of reovirus and bluetongue virus capsid proteins, J. Virology 12:194–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Matsuhisa, T., and Joklik, W.K., 1974, Temperature-sensitive mutants of reovirus. V. Studies on the nature of the temperature-sensitive lesion of the group C mutant ts 477, Virology 60:380–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Mayor, H.D., and Jordan, L.E., 1965, Studies on reovirus. I. Morphologic observations on the development of reovirus in tissue culture, Exp. Mol. Pathol. 4:40–50.Google Scholar
  162. McCrae, M.A., and Joklik, W.K., 1978, The nature of the polypeptide encoded by each of the 10 double-stranded RNA segments of reovirus type 3, Virology 98:578–593.Google Scholar
  163. McDowell, M.J., and Joklik, W.K., 1971, An in vitro protein synthesizing system from mouse L fibroblasts infected with reovirus, Virology 45(3): 724–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. McDowell, M.J., Joklik, W.K., Villa-Komaroff, L., and Lodish, H.F., 1972, Translation of reovirus messenger RNA’s synthesized in vitro into reovirus polypeptides by several mammalian cell-free extracts, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69(9):2649–2653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Millward, S.; and Graham, A.F., 1974, Reovirus: Early events (in the infected cell) and structure of the double-stranded RNA genome, in: Viruses, Evolution and Cancer (E. Kurstak and K. Maramorosch, eds.), pp. 651–675, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  166. Morgan, E.M., and Kingsbury, D.W., 1980, Pyridoxal phosphate as a probe of reovirus transcriptase, Biochemistry 19:484–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Morgan, E.M., and Kingsbury, D.W., 1981, Reovirus enzymes that modify messenger RNA are inhibited by perturbation of the lambda proteins, Virology 113:565–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Morgan, E.M., and Zweerink, H.J., 1974, Reovirus morphogenesis: Core-like particles in cells infected at 39° with wild-type reovirus and temperature-sensitive mutants of groups B and G, Virology 59:556–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Morgan, E.M., and Zweerink, H.J., 1975, Characterization of transcriptase and replicase particles isolated from reovirus infected cells, Virology 68(2):455–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Morgan, E.M., and Zweerink, H.J., 1977, Characterization of the double-stranded RNA in replicase particles in reovirus infected cells, Virology 77(1):421–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Moyer, S.A., and Banerjee, A.K., 1976, In vivo methylation of vesicular stomatitis virus and its host-cell messenger RNA species, Virology 70:339–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Mustoe, T.A., Ramig, R.F., Sharpe, A.H., and Fields, B.N., 1978a, A genetic map of reovirus. III. Assignment of the double-stranded RNA-positive mutant groups A, B and G to genome segments, Virology 85:545-556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Mustoe, T.A., Ramig, R.F., Sharpe, A.H., and Fields, B.N., 1978b, Genetics of reovirus: Identification of the dsRNA segments encoding the polypeptides of the μ and σ size classes, Virology 89:594-604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Nakashima, K., LaFiandra, A.J., and Shatkin, A.J., 1979, Differential dependence of reovirus-associated enzyme activities on genome RNA as determined by psoralen photosensitivity, J. Biol. Chem. 254:8007–8014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Nichols, J.L., Bellamy, A.R., and Joklik, W.K., 1972a, Identification of the nucleotide sequences of the oligonucleotides present in reovirions, Virology 49:562–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Nichols, J.L., Hay, A.J., and Joklik, W.K., 1972b, 5′-Terminal nucleotide sequence of reovirus mRNA synthesized in vitro, Nature (London) New Biol. 235:105–107.Google Scholar
  177. Nomoto, A., Lee, Y.F., and Wimmer, E., 1976, The 5′ end of poliovirus mRNA is not capped with m7G(5′)ppp(5′)Np, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73:375–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Nonoyama, M., and Graham, A.F., 1970, Appearance of defective virions in clones of reovirus, J. Virol. 6:693–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Nonoyama, M., Watanabe, Y., and Graham, A.F., 1970, Defective virions of reovirus, J. Virol. 6:226–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Nonoyama, M., Millward, S., and Graham, A.F., 1974, Control of transcription of the reovirus genome, Nucleic Acids Res. 1:373–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Oie, H., Loh, P.C., and Soergel, M., 1966, Growth characteristics and immunocytochemical studies of reovirus type 2 in a line of human amnion cells, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 18:16–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Prevec, L., Watanabe, Y., Gauntt, Cf., and Graham, A.F., 1968, Transcription of the genomes of type 1 and type 3 reoviruses, J. Virol. 2:289–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Ralph, S.J., Harvey, J.D., and Bellamy, A.R., 1980, Subunit structure of the reovirus spike, J. Virol. 36:894–896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Ramig, R.F., Cross, R.K., and Fields, B.N., 1977, Genome RNA’s and polypeptides of reovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3, J. Virol. 22:726–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Ramig, R.F., Mustoe, T.A., Sharpe, A.H., and Fields, B.N., 1978, A genetic map of reovirus. II. Assignment of the double-stranded RNA-negative mutants groups C., D and E genome segments, Virology 85:531–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Rhim, J.S., Jordan, L.E., and Mayor, H.D., 1962, Cytochemical, fluorescent-antibody and electron microscopic studies on the growth of reovirus (Echo 10) in tissue culture, Virology 17:342–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Rose, J.K., Trachsel, H., Leong, K., and Baltimore, D., 1978, Inhibition of translation by poliovirus: Inactivation of a specific initation factor, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:2732–2736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Rosen, L., 1962, Reovirus in animals other than man, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 101:461–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Rosen, L., 1968, Reoviruses, in: Virology Monographs, Vol. 1 (S. Gard, C. Hallauer, and K.F. Meyer, eds.), pp. 73–107, Springer-Verlag, Vienna.Google Scholar
  190. Sakuma, S., and Watanabe, Y., 1971, Unilateral synthesis of reovirus double-stranded ribonucleic acid by a cell free replicase system, J. Virol. 8:190–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Sakuma, S., and Watanabe, Y., 1972a, Reovirus replicase-directed synthesis of doublestranded ribonucleic acid, J. Virol. 10:628–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Sakuma, S., and Watanabe, Y., 1972b, Incorporation of in vitro synthesized reovirus doublestranded RNA into virus core-like particles, J. Virol. 10(5):943–950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Samuel, C.E., Farris, D.A., and Levin, K.H., 1977, Biosynthesis of virus specified polypeptides: System-dependent effect of reovirus mRNA methylation on translation in vitro catalyzed by ascites tumor and wheat embryo cell-free extracts, Virology 81:476–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Schmidt, N.J., Dennis, J., Hoffman, M.N., and Lennette, E.H., 1964a, Inhibitors of echovirus and reovirus hemagglutination. I. Inhibitors in tissue culture fluids, J. Immunol. 93:367–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Schmidt, N.J., Dennis, J., Hoffman, M.N., and Lennette, E.H., 1964b, Inhibitors of echovirus and reovirus hemagglutination. II. Serum and phospholipid inhibitors, J. Immunol. 93:377–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Schochetman, G., and Millward, S., 1972, Ribonucleoside diphosphate precursors for in vitro reovirus RNA synthesis, Nature (London) New Biol. 239:77–79.Google Scholar
  197. Schonberg, M., Silverstein, S.C., Levin, D.H., and Acs, G., 1971, Asynchronous synthesis of the complementary strands of the reovirus genome, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68:505–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Schuerch, A.R., Matsuhisa, T., and Joklik, W.K., 1974, Temperature-sensitive mutants of reovirus. VI. Mutants ts447 and ts556 particles that lack either one or two genome RNA segments, Intervirology 3:36–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Schuerch, A.R., Mitchell, W.R., and Joklik, W.K., 1975, Isolation of intact individual species of single-and double-stranded RNA after fractionation by polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis, Anal. Biochem. 65:331–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Sharpe, A.H., and Fields, B.N., 1981, Reovirus inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis: Role of the S1 gene, J. Virol. 38:389–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Sharpe, A.H., and Fields, B.N., 1982, Reovirus inhibition of cellular RNA and protein synthesis: Role of the S4 gene, Virology 122:381–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Sharpe, A.H., Chen, L.B., and Fields, B.N., 1982, The interaction of mammalian reoviruses with the cytoskeleton of monkey kidney CV-1 cells, Virology 120:399–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Sharpe, A.H., Ramig, R.F., Mustoe, T.A., and Fields, B.N., 1978, A genetic map of reovirus. I. Correlation of genome RNA’s between serotypes 1, 2 and 3, Virology 84:63–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Shatkin, A.J., 1965a, Actinomycin and the differential synthesis of reovirus and L cell RNA, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 19:506–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Shatkin, A.J., 1965b, Inactivity of purified reovirus RNA as a template for E. coli polymerases in vitro, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 54:1721–1728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Shatkin, A.J., 1974, Methylated messenger RNA synthesis 222 vitro by purified reovirus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71:3204–3207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Shatkin, A.J., 1976, Capping of eukaryotic mRNAs, Cell 9:645–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Shatkin, A.J., and Banerjee, A.K., 1970, In vitro transcription of double-stranded RNA by reovirus-associated RNA polymerase, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 35:781.Google Scholar
  209. Shatkin, A.J., and Both, G.W., 1976, Reovirus mRNA: Transcription and translation, Cell 7:305–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Shatkin, A.J., and LaFiandra, A.J., 1972, Transcription by infectious subviral particles of reovirus, J. Virol. 10(4):698–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Shatkin, A.J., and Rada, B., 1967, Reovirus-directed ribonucleic acid synthesis in infected L cells, J. Virol. 1:24–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Shatkin, A.J., and Sipe, J.D., 1968a, Single-stranded, adenine-rich RNA from purified reoviruses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 59:246-253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Shatkin, A.J., and Sipe, J.D., 1968b, RNA polymerase activity in purified reoviruses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 61:1462–1469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Shaw, J.E., and Cox, D.C., 1973, Early inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis by high multiplicities of infectious and UV inactivated reovirus, J. Virol. 12(4):704–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Shelton, I.H., Kasupski, G.J., Oblin, C., and Hand, R., 1981, DNA binding of a nonstructural reovirus protein, Can. J. Biochem. 59:122–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Shestopalova, N.M., Reingold, V.N., Chumakova, A.B., and Voroshilova, M.K., 1977, Anew complex between ribosomes and reovirus particles, Biol. Cell. 28:9–12.Google Scholar
  217. Shuman, S., and Hurwitz, J., 1981, Mechanism of mRNA capping by vaccinia virus guanylyltransferase: Characterization of an enzyme-guanylate intermediate, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78:187–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Silverstein, S.C., 1975, The role of mononuclear phagocytes in viral immunity, in: Monnonuclear Phagocytes in Immunity, Infection and Pathology (R. Van Furth, ed.), pp. 557–568, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  219. Silverstein, S.C., and Dales, S., 1968, The penetration of reovirus RNA and initiation of its genetic function in L-strain fibroblasts, J. Cell Biol. 36:197–230.Google Scholar
  220. Silverstein, S.C., and Schur, P.H., 1970, Immunofluorescent localization of double-stranded RNA in reovirus-infected cells, Virology 41:564–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Silverstein, S.C., Schonberg, M., Levin, D.H., and Acs, G., 1970, The reovirus replicative cycle: Conservation of parental RNA and protein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 67:275–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Silverstein, S.C., Astell, C., Levin, D.H., Schonberg, M., and Acs, G., 1972, The mechanisms of reovirus uncoating and gene activation in vivo, Virology 47(3):797–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Silverstein, S.C., Astell, C., Christman, J., Klett, H., and Acs, G., 1974, Synthesis of reovirus oligoadenylic acid in vivo and in vitro, J. Virol. 13(3):740–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Silverstein, S.C., Christman, J.K., and Acs, G., 1976, The reovirus replication cycle, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 45:375–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Skehel, J.J. and Joklik, W.K., 1969, Studies on the in vitro transcription of reovirus RNA catalyzed by reovirus cores, Virology 39:822–831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Skup, D., and Millward, S., 1977, Highly efficient translation of messenger RNA in cellfree extracts prepared from L-cells, Nucleic Acids Res. 4:3581–3587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Skup, D., and Millward, S., 1980a, Reovirus induced modification of cap dependent translation in infected L cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77(1):152–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Skup, D., and Millward, S., 1980b, mRNA capping enzymes are masked in reovirus progeny subviral particles, J. Virol. 34:490–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Skup, D., Zarbl, H., and Millward, S., 1981, Regulation of translation in L-cells infected with reovirus, J. Mol. Biol. 151:35–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Smith, R.E., Zweerink, H.J., and Joklik, W.K., 1969, Polypeptides components of virions, top component and cores of reovirus type 3, Virology 39:791–810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Sonenberg, N., 1981, ATP/Mg+ +-dependent crosslinking of cap binding proteins to the 5′ end of eukaryotic mRNA, Nucleic Acids Res. 9:1643–1656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Sonenberg, N.; and Shatkin, A.J., 1977, Reovirus mRNA can be covalently crosslinked via the 5′ cap to proteins in initiation complexes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74:4288–4292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Sonenberg, N., Guertin, D., and Lee, K.A.W., 1982, Capped mRNAs with reduced secondary structure can function in extracts from poliovirus-infected cells, Mol. Cell. Biology 2:1633–1638.Google Scholar
  234. Sonenberg, N., Morgan, M.A., Merrick, W.C., and Shatkin, A.J., 1978, A polypeptide in eukaryotic initiation factors that crosslinks specifically to the 5′-terminal cap in mRNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:4843–4847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Sonenberg, N., Morgan, M.A., Testa, D., Colonno, R.J., and Shatkin, A.J., 1979a, Interaction of a limited set of proteins with different mRNAs and protection of 5′-caps against pyrophosphatase digestion in initiation complexes, Nucleic Acids Res. 7:15-29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Sonenberg, N., Rupprecht, K.M., Hecht, S.M., and Shatkin, A.J., 1979b, Eukaryotic mRNA cap binding protein: Purification by affinity chromatography on Sepharose-coupled m7GDP, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:4345–4349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Sonenberg, N., Trachsel, H., Hecht, S., and Shatkin, A.J., 1980, Differential stimulation of capped mRNA translation in vitro by cap-binding protein, Nature (London) 285:331–333.Google Scholar
  238. Sonenberg, N., Guertin, D., Cleveland, D.R., and Trachsel, H., 1981a, Probing the function of the eukaryotic 5′ cap structure by using a monoclonal antibody directed against capbinding proteins, Cell 27:563–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Sonenberg, N., Skup, D., Trachsel, H., and Millward, S., 1981b, In vitro translation in reovirus-and poliovirus-infected cell extracts: Effects of anti-cap binding protein monoclonal antibody, J. Biol. Chem. 256:4138–4141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Spandidos, D.A., and Graham, A.F., 1975, Complementation between temperature-sensitive and deletion mutants of reovirus, J. Virol. 16:1444–1452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Spandidos, D.A., and Graham, A.F., 1976a, Recombination between temperature-sensitive and deletion mutants of reovirus, J. Virol. 18:117–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Spandidos, D.A. and Graham, A.F., 1976b, Nonpermissive infection of L-cells by an avian reovirus: Restricted transcription of the viral genome, J. Virol. 19:977–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Spandidos, D.A., Krystal, G., and Graham, A.F., 1976, Regulated transcription of the genomes of defective virions and temperature-sensitive mutants of reovirus, J. Virol. 18(1):7–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Spendlove, R.S., and Schaffer, F.L., 1965, Enzymatic enhancement of infectivity of reovirus, J. Bacteriol. 89:597–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Spendlove, R.S., Lennette, E.H., Knight, CO. and Chin, J.N., 1963a, Development of viral antigen and infectious virus in HeLa cells infected with reovirus, J. Immunol. 90:548-553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Spendlove, R.S., Lennette, E.H., and John, A.C., 1963b, The role of the mitotic apparatus in the intracellular location of reovirus antigen, J. Immunol. 90:554–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Spendlove, R.S., Lennette, E.H., Chin, J.N., and Knight, C.O., 1964, Effects of antimitotic agents on intracellular reovirus antigen, Cancer Res. 24:1826–1833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Spendlove, R.S., McClain, M.E., and Lennette, E.H., 1970, Enhancement of reovirus infectivity by extracellular removal or alteration of the virus capsid by proteolytic enzymes, J. Gen. Virol. 8:83–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Stamatos, N.M., and Gamatos, P.J., 1982, Binding to selected regions of reovirus mRNAs by a nonstructural reovirus protein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:3457–3461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Stanley, N.F., 1961a, Reovirus—a ubiquitous orphan, Med. J. Aust. 2:815–818.Google Scholar
  251. Stanley, N.F., 1961b, Relationship of hepatoencephalomyelitis virus and reovirus, Nature (London) 189:687.Google Scholar
  252. Stoltzfus, C.M., and Banerjee, A.K., 1972, Two oligonucleotide classes of single-stranded ribopolymers in reovirus A-rich RNA, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 152:733–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Stoltzfus, C.M., Morgan, M., Banerjee, A.K., and Shatkin, A.J., 1974, Poly(A) polymerase activity in reovirus, J. Virol. 13:1338–1345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Tardieu, M., and Weiner, H.L., 1982, Viral receptors on isolated murine and human ependymal cells, Science 215:419–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Tillotson, J.R., and Lerner, A.M., 1966, Effect of periodate oxidation on hemagglutinating and antibody-producing capacities of certain enteroviruses and reoviruses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 56:1143–1150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Trachsel, H., Sonenberg, N., Shatkin, A.J., Rose, J.K., Leong, K., Bergman, J.E., Gordon, J., and Baltimore, D., 1980, Purification of a factor that restores translation of VSV mRNA in extracts from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:770–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Van Dijk, A.A., and Huismans, H., 1980, The in vitro activation and further characterization of the bluetongue virus-associated transcriptase, Virology 104:347–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Van Steeg, H., Thomas, A., Verbeek, S., Kasperaitis, M., Voorma, H.O., and Benne, R., 1981, Shut-off of neuroblastoma cell protein synthesis by Semliki forest virus: Loss of ability of crude initiation factors to recognize early Semliki forest virus and host mRNA’s, J. Virol. 38:728–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Venkatesan, S., and Moss, B., 1980, Donor and acceptor specificities of HeLa cell mRNA guanylyltransferase, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 2835–2842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Venkatesan, S., and Moss, B., 1982, Eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme-guanylate covalent intermediate, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:340–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Wachsman, J.T., Levin, D.H., and Acs, G., 1970, Ribonucleoside triphosphate-dependent pyrophosphate exchange of reovirus cores, J. Virol. 6:563–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Waiden, W.E., Godefroy-Colburn, T., and Thach, R.E., 1981, The role of mRNA competition in regulating translation. I. Demonstration of competition in vivo, J. Biol. Chem. 256:11, 739-11, 746.Google Scholar
  263. Wallis, C., Smith, K.O., and Melnick, J.L., 1964, Reovirus activation by heating and inactivation by cooling in MgCl2 solutions, Virology 22:608–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Wallis, C., Melnick, J.L., and Rapp, F., 1966, Effects of pancreatin on the growth of reovirus, J. Bacteriol. 92:155–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Ward, R.L., and Shatkin, A.J., 1972, Association of reovirus messenger RNA with viral proteins: A possible mechanism for linking the genome segments, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 152(1):378–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Watanabe, Y., Kudo, H., and Graham, A.F., 1967a, Selective inhibition of reovirus ribonucleic acid synthesis by cycloheximide, J. Virol. 1:36–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Watanabe, Y., Prevec, L., and Graham, A.F., 1967b, Specificity in transcription of the reovirus genome, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 58:1040–1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Watanabe, Y., Gauntt, C.J., and Graham, 1968a, Reovirus-induced ribonucleic acid polymerase, J. Virol. 2:869–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Watanabe, Y., Millward, S., and Graham, A.F., 1968b, Regulation of transcription of the reovirus genome, J. Mol. Biol. 36:107–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Watanabe, Y., Sakuma, S., and Shames, R., 1974, In vitro synthesis of reovirus genomic segments, Jpn. J. Microbiol. 18:253–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Wei, C.-M., and Moss, B., 1977, 5′-Terminal capping of RNA by guanylyltransferase from HeLa cell nuclei, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74:3758–3761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Weiner, H.L., and Fields, B.N., 1977, Neutralization of reovirus: The gene responsible for the neutralization antigen, J. Exp. Med. 146:1305–1310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Weiner, H.L., Drayna, D., Averill, D.R., Jr., and Fields, B.N., 1977, Molecular basis of reovirus virulence: Role of the S-1 gene, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74(12):5744–5748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Weiner, H.L., Ramig, R.F., Mustoe, T.A., and Fields, B.N., 1978, Identification of the gene coding for the hemagglutinin of reovirus, Virology 86(2):581–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Weiner, H.L., Powers, MX., and Fields, B.N., 1980a, Absolute linkage of virulence and central nervous system cell tropism of reoviruses to viral hemagglutinin, J. Infect. Dis. 141(5):609–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Weiner, H.L., Ault, K.A., and Fields, B.N., 1980b, Interaction of reovirus with cell receptors. I. Murine and human lymphocytes have a receptor for the hemagglutinin of reovirus type 3. J. Immunol. 124:2143–2148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Weiner, H.L., Greene, M.I., and Fields, B.N., 1980c, Delayed hypersensitivity in mice infected with reovirus. I. Identification of host and viral gene products responsible for the immune response, J. Immunol. 125:278–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. White, C.K., and Zweerink, H.J., 1976, Studies on the structure of reovirus cores: Selective removal of polypeptide λ2, Virology 70:171–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Wiebe, M.E., and Joklik, W.K., 1975, The mechanism of inhibition of reovirus replication by interferon, Virology 66:229–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Yamakawa, M., Furuichi, Y., and Shatkin, A.J., 1982, Reovirus transcriptase and capping enzymes are active in intact virions, Virology 118:157–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Yamakawa, M., Furuichi, Y., Nakashima, K., LaFiandra, A.J., and Shatkin, A.J., 1981, Excess synthesis of viral mRNA 5′-terminal oligonucleotides by reovirus transcriptase, J. Biol. Chem. 256:6507–6514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Zarbl, H., Hastings, K.E.M., and Millward, S., 1980a, Reovirus core particles synthesize capped oligonucleotides as a result of abortive transcription, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 202:348-360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Zarbl, H., Skup, S., and Millward, S., 1980b, Reovirus progeny subviral particles synthesize uncapped mRNA, J. Virol. 34:497–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Zweerink, H., 1974, Multiple forms of ss→ds RNA polymerase activity in reovims-infected cells, Nature (London) 247:313–315.Google Scholar
  285. Zweerink, H.J., and Joklik, W.K., 1970, Studies on the intracellular synthesis of reovirusspecified proteins, Virology 41:501–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Zweerink, H.J., McDowell, M.J., and Joklik, W.K., 1971, Essential and nonessential non-capsid reovirus proteins, Virology 45(3):716–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Zweerink, H.J., Ito, Y., and Matsuhisa, T., 1972, Synthesis of reovims double-stranded RNA within virion-like particles, Virology 50:349–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Zweerink, H.J., Morgan, E.M., and Skyler, J.S., 1976, Reovirus morphogenesis: Characterization of subviral particles in infected cells, Virology 73:442–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Zarbl
    • 1
  • Stewart Millward
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations