• Robert E. Faith
  • Anthony J. Murgo
  • Nicholas P. Plotnikoff


When immunology was a new science the immune system and immune response were viewed in rather simple terms. The immune system was viewed to be rather autonomous in function and to be a primairly internally regulated system. This view was supported by the fact that various elements of the immune system are capable of functioning in in vitro systems and by the natural antibody selection theory (1). As our knowledge of immunity and the immune system has increased it has become increasingly clear that the immune system is quite complex, both in its make up and its functions.


Immune System Immune Function Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Opioid Peptide Endogenous Opioid 
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  1. 1.
    N. K. Jerne, 1955, The natural selection theory of antibody formation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ( U.S.A. ), 41: 849.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. E. Blalock, 1984, The immune system as a sensory organ. J. Immunol. 132: 1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Faith
    • 1
  • Anthony J. Murgo
    • 2
  • Nicholas P. Plotnikoff
    • 3
  1. 1.University of HoustonHoustonUSA
  2. 2.West Virginia University Medical CenterMorgantownUSA
  3. 3.Oral Roberts University School of MedicineTulsaUSA

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