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The 1961 National Cuban Literacy Campaign

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National Literacy Campaigns

Abstract

In 1986, 27 years after its Revolution, Cuba’s highest flag is still the banner of education. Almost one-third of the people—three million—including nearly all children between the ages of six and twelve, are enrolled in school. The number of teachers committed to the educational enterprise continues to be a source of national pride.1

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Notes

  1. José R. Fernández, Desarrollo de la Educación en Cuba, Speech delivered at the Pedagogía 86 Congress, Jan. 27-31, 1986 (Havana: Ministry of Education), pp. 38, 58.

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  2. For documentation of an educational system that had “steadily deteriorated,” see Hugh Thomas, The Cuban Revolution (New York: Harper and Row, 1971), pp. 349–353.

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  3. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Report on Cuba (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1951), pp. 405, 425, 434.

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  4. Anna Lorenzetto and Karel Neys, Methods and Means Utilized in Cuba to Eliminate Illiteracy (UNESCO Report), (Havana: Instituto del Libro, 2nd edition, 1971), p. 15.

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  5. Richard R. Fagen, The Transformation of Political Culture in Cuba (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1969), p. 35.

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  6. Ibid., pp. 63-64. For additional data on Cuba’s ranking in social expenditures, see Ruth Leger Sivard, World Military and Social Expenditures, 1983: An Annual Report on World Prionties (Washington, D.C.: World Priorities, 1983).

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  7. Jorge I. Domínguez, Cuba: Order and Revolution (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978), p. 165.

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  8. “Universidad Popular,” Educación y Revolutión, 6th series (Havana: Imprenta Nacional de Cuba, 1961), p. 271. John Gerassi, ed., Venceremos! The Speeches and Writings of Che Guevara (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968), p. 391.

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  9. Richard Jolly, “Education,” in Dudley Seers, ed., Cuba: The Economic and Social Revolution (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, 1964), pp. 194–195; Also see Lorenzetto, p. 29.

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  10. Rene J. Mújica, “Some Recollections of My Experiences in the Cuban Literacy Campaign,” Journal of Reading 25 (Dec. 1981), p. 222.

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  11. Abel Prieto Morales, “The Literacy Campaign in Cuba,” Harvard Educational Review 51 (February 1981), pp. 35–36.

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  12. In addition to Prieto’s article, other key references on the literacy campaign are Lorenzetto, Fagen, Jolly; and Jonathan Kozol, Children Are the Revolution (New York: Delacorte Press, 1978).

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  13. Marta Rojas, “El Símbolo Fue el Farol” (Granma, December 30, 1968), p. 9.

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  14. Raul Ferrer, “Informe de la Comisión Nacional de Alfabetización,” Congreso National de Alfabetización (Havana: Imprenta Nacional de Cuba, 1961), p. 19.

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  15. Samuel Bowles, “Cuban Education and the Revolutionary Ideology,” Harvard Educational Review 41 (November, 1971), p. 474.

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  16. Gaspar Jorge García Galló, “La Escuela al Campo,” Educati ón en Cuba, 1 (January-February, 1967), p. 8.

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  17. Also see Marvin Leiner, “Cuba’s Combining Formal Schooling with Practical Experience,” in Education for Rural Development: Case Studies for Planners, edited by Manzoor Ahmed and Philip Coombs (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975), pp. 61–110.

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  18. For further discussion of Cuban day care personnel problem and the “paraprofessional solution,” see Marvin Leiner, Children Are the Revolution: Day Care in Cuba (New York: Penguin Books, 1978), pp. 33–50.

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  19. Rosario Fernández Perera, Raul Ferrer Pèrez, Teodomira Aguilar Abreu, Jaime Canfux Gutiérrez, Lorenzo Rabre Alvarez, La Batalla por el Sexto Grado (Havana: Editorial Pueblo y Educatiòn, 1985), pp. 7, 86-88.

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  20. Closing Speech by Fidel Castro at the Pedagogy 86 International Congress held in Havana, 1986; also see Marvin Leiner, “Cuba’s Schools: 25 Years Later,” in Sandor Halebsky and John Kirk, eds., Cuba: Twenty-Five Years of Revolution 1959-1984 (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1985), pp. 33–35.

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© 1987 Springer Science+Business Media New York

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Leiner, M. (1987). The 1961 National Cuban Literacy Campaign. In: Arnove, R.F., Graff, H.J. (eds) National Literacy Campaigns. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-0505-5_8

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-0505-5_8

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4899-0507-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4899-0505-5

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