Advertisement

Helium as a Classical Fluid

  • Steven W. Van Sciver
Part of the The International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (ICMS)

Abstract

Of all the cryogenic fluids, helium exhibits behavior that most nearly approximates that of an ideal fluid. This fact is caused mostly by the weak intermolecular potential that helium enjoys. It further manifests itself in the fact that helium has the lowest critical point of all fluids, T c = 5.2 K, p c = 0.226 MPa. As a result of this near ideality, much of the behavior of gaseous and liquid helium above the superfluid transition can be treated in terms of classical models. This is not to say that quantum effects do not contribute to the behavior. Rather, certain features of helium in this temperature and pressure range are controlled by a combination of physical phenomena which can be qualitatively if not quantitatively described in terms of classical models. Conversely, certain characteristics of helium, most notably that of the liquid state below the superfluid transition and also the solid state, have properties which are so determined by quantum mechanics that classical physics cannot be used in a meaningful way to interpret their behavior. The quantum aspects of helium are discussed separately in Chapter 4.

Keywords

Prandtl Number Liquid Helium Saturated Vapor Pressure Transport Coefficient Virial Coefficient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. R. D.McCarty, Thermophysical Properties of Helium-4 from 2 to 1500 K with Pressures to 1000 Atmospheres,NBS Technical Note 631, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. O. Hirschfelder, C. F. Curtiss, and R. B. Bird, Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids, Wiley, New York, 1954.MATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. S. Rowlinson, Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, 2nd ed., Plenum Press, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. E. Keller, Helium-3 and Helium-4, Plenum Press, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Hwang, Statistical Mechanics, Wiley, New York, 1963.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. E. Keller, Pressure-Volume Isotherms of ‘He Below 4.2 K, Phys. Rev. 100, 1790 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. H. Keesom, Helium, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1942.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. D. McCarty, Thermodynamic Properties of Helium-4 from 2 to 1500 K at Pressures to 108 Pa, J. Phys. Chem. Ref Data 2, 923 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. B. Mann, The Thermodynamic Properties of Helicon from 3 to 300 K between 0.5 and 100 Atmospheres, NBS Technical Note 154, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1962.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. W. Hill and O. V. Lounasmaa, The Specific Heat of Liquid Helium, Philos. Mag. 8, 2A, 143 (1957).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. W. Hill and O. V. Lounasmaa, The Thermodynamic Properties of Fluid Helium, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 252A, 357 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. C. Kerr and R. D. Taylor, The Molar Volume and Expansion Coefficient of Liquid °He, Ann. Phys. 26, 292 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. T. Van Degrift, Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Irvine, 1974.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. F. Barenghi, P. G. J. Lucas, and R. J. Donnelly, Cubic Spline Fits to Thermodynamic and Transport Parameters of Liquid 4He above the 2-Transition, J. Low Temp. Phys. 44, 491 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. W. Zemansky, Heat and Thermodynamics, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. R. Atkins, Liquid Helium, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1959.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven W. Van Sciver
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations