Factors Affecting Developmental Processes in Alfalfa Cell Cultures

  • David A. Stuart
  • Janet Nelsen
  • Steven G. Strickland
  • James W. Nichol
Chapter
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 32)

Abstract

The development of somatic embryos in alfalfa is strongly influenced by the presence of a reduced nitrogen source during embryogeny. Amino acids such as proline, alanine, arginine, and glutamine at high concentrations (30 mM and above) improve embryo yields. The effect of proline on embryo yield is the result of a synergistic interaction of proline and ammonium. The quality of embryogenesis is also enhanced by amino acids as measured by improved morphology and conversion of embryos to plantlets. An additional measure of somatic embryo quality may be the expression of the seed-specific 7S and 11S storage proteins common to legume seeds. Somatic embryos of alfalfa show little expression of these storage proteins following induction on high 2,4-D medium. If low 2,4-D induction is used, embryo morphology and conversion to plantlets are improved and expression of storage protein is high for both the 7S and 11S proteins. These results are discussed with respect to the developmental program of zygotic embryos.

Keywords

Sedimentation Serine Proline Lysine Arginine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Halperin, W., and D.F. Wetherell (1965) Ammonium requirement for somatic embryogenesis in vitro. Nature 205:519–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Walker, K.A., and S.J. Sato (1981) Morphogenesis in callus tissue of Medicago sativa; The role of ammonium ion in somatic embryogenesis. Plant Cell Tissue Organ. Culture 1:109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gleddie, S., W. Keller, and G. Setterfield (1983) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf expiants and cell suspensions of Solanum melongena (eggplant). Can. J. Bot. 61:656–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tazawa, M., and J. Reinert (1969) Extracellular and intracellular chemical environments in relation to embryogenesis in vitro. Protoplasma 68:157–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wetherell, D.F., and D.K. Dougall (1976) Sources of nitrogen supporting growth and embryogenesis in cultivated wild carrot tissue. Physiol. Plant. 37:97–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kamada, H., and H. Harada (1979) Studies on organogenesis in carrot tissue culture. II. Effects of amino acids and inorganic nitrogenous compounds on somatic embryogenesis. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 91:453–463.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stuart, D.A., and S.G. Strickland (1984) Somatic embryogenesis from cell cultures of Medicago sativa L. I. The role of amino acid additions to the regeneration medium. Plant Sci. Lett. 34:165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stuart, D.A., and S.G. Strickland (1984) Somatic embryogenesis from cell cultures of Medicago sativa L. II. The interaction of amino acids with ammonium. Plant Sci. Lett. 34:175–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schenk, R.U., and A.C. Hildebrandt (1972) Medium and techniques for induction and growth of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant cell cultures. Can. J. Bot. 29:199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Al-abta, S., I. J. Galpin, and H.A. Collin (1979) Flavour compounds in tissue cultures of celery. Plant Sci. Lett. 16:129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jala, M.A.F., and H.A. Collin (1979) Secondary metabolism in tissue cultures of Theobroma cacao. New Phytol. 83:343–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Janick, J., D.C. Wright, and P.M. Hasegawa (1982) In vitro production of cocoa seed lipids. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 107:919.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crouch, M.L., and I.M. Sussex (1981) Development and storage protein synthesis in Brassica napus L. embryos in vivo and in vitro. Planta 153:64–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Crouch, M.L. (1982) Non-zygotic embryos of Brassica napus L. contain embryo specific storage proteins. Planta 156:520–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sun, S.M., M.A. Mutschler, F.A. Bliss, and T.C. Hall (1978) Protein synthesis and accumulation in bean cotyledons during growth. Plant Physiol. 61:918–923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sussex, I.M., and R.M.K. Dale (1979) Hormonal control of storage protein synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris. In The Plant Seed, I. Rubinstein, R.L. Phillips, C.E. Green, and B.G. Gegenbach, eds. Academic Press, New York, pp. 129–141.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Danielsson, C.E. (1949) Seed globulins of the Gramineae and Leguminosae. Biochem. J. 44:387–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martin, G.G., and B.N. Ames (1961) A method for determining the sedimentation behavior of enzymes: Application to protein mixtures. J. Biol. Chem. 236:1372–1379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bradford, M.M. (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Annals Biochem. 72:248–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Laemmli, U.K. (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227:680–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Walker, K.A., M.L. Wendeln, and E.G. Jaworski (1979) Organogenesis in callus tissue of Medicago sativa. The temporal separation of induction processes from differentiation processes. Plant Sci. Lett. 16:23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Stuart
    • 1
  • Janet Nelsen
    • 1
  • Steven G. Strickland
    • 1
  • James W. Nichol
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Genetics, Inc.DavisUSA

Personalised recommendations